Aljazair Direbut - Sejarah

Aljazair Direbut - Sejarah

Orang Aljazair telah menghina Duta Besar Prancis pada tahun 1827 dan mengancam akan mencabut hak perdagangan Prancis di Aljazair. Prancis menanggapi dengan memasang sebuah eksposisi melawan Aljazair yang merebutnya pada Juli 1830.

Sejarah mengejutkan perbudakan 1,5 juta orang kulit putih Eropa di Afrika Utara pada abad ke-16

Bridget Boakye adalah seorang penulis, aktivis, dan pengusaha yang tinggal di Accra, Ghana. Dibesarkan di Ghana dan AS, dia sangat tertarik pada isu-isu yang mengacu pada pengalaman, wawasan, dan nilai-nilai dari Afrika dan Diaspora Afrika. Dia saat ini adalah Anggota Amplify Africa dan anggota Global Shapers Accra Hub. Anda dapat menemukannya di Instagram di @boakyeb

Akhir tahun lalu, BBC melaporkan bahwa sejarawan telah meluncurkan kampanye untuk menciptakan kesadaran tentang bajak laut Barbar di Afrika Utara. Perompak ini, juga disebut barbary corsairs, menangkap ratusan ribu orang dari komunitas pesisir Inggris dari abad ke-16 hingga ke-19 dan menjual mereka sebagai budak di Afrika Utara, di mana banyak dari mereka menghabiskan sisa hidup mereka.

Perdagangan budak Barbary, yang terjadi pada saat yang sama dengan perdagangan budak Trans-Atlantik di mana orang Afrika kulit hitam dikirim dari Afrika ke Amerika, telah menjadi topik yang sangat kontroversial, menarik perdebatan sengit tentang masalah perbudakan, rasisme, dan agama. .


Pertempuran Aljir

Editor kami akan meninjau apa yang Anda kirimkan dan menentukan apakah akan merevisi artikel tersebut.

Pertempuran Aljir, Italia La battaglia di Aljazair, film perang Italia-Aljazair, dirilis pada tahun 1966, yang merupakan pencapaian khas sutradara Gillo Pontecorvo dan eksperimen yang diakui dalam cinéma vérité.

Film yang mencolok secara visual ini mendokumentasikan pemberontakan Aljazair melawan Prancis pada tahun 1954–62, dengan fokus pada peristiwa tahun 1956–57. Setelah Ali La Pointe (diperankan oleh aktor pertama kali Brahim Hadjadj) direkrut untuk bergabung dengan Front Pembebasan Nasional (FLN), sebuah kelompok gerilya yang dipimpin oleh Saari Kader (diperankan oleh komandan FLN kehidupan nyata Saadi Yacef), ia menjadi aktif terlibat dalam pemberontakan bersenjatanya melawan kekuatan kolonial Prancis di Aljir. Kedua belah pihak terlibat dalam konflik berkepanjangan, karena serangan kekerasan dan tindakan pembalasan berlanjut selama berbulan-bulan. Akhirnya, Kolonel Prancis Mathieu (Jean Martin) berhasil membongkar FLN secara metodis, saat Kader dan pemimpin lainnya ditangkap dan La Pointe terbunuh. Tiga tahun kemudian, bagaimanapun, pemberontakan baru pecah, dan Aljazair akhirnya memenangkan kemerdekaannya pada tahun 1962.

Presentasi film yang luar biasa dari pembuatan film bergaya dokumenter membuat banyak pemirsa percaya bahwa Pontecorvo telah menggunakan cuplikan berita dari pemberontakan yang sebenarnya. Faktanya, setiap frame dibidik oleh Pontecorvo menggunakan kamera 16 mm. Sebagian karena kecenderungan Marxis Pontecorvo yang terkenal, beberapa kritikus mencela Pertempuran Aljir sebagai propaganda anti-Prancis, dan itu tidak ditampilkan di Prancis sampai tahun 1971. Akan tetapi, banyak orang lain yang menganggap penggambaran Pontecorvo tentang kebrutalan pertempuran itu bersifat perseptif dan berimbang. Selama beberapa dekade setelah dirilis, film ini dipelajari oleh militer nasional dan faksi-faksi revolusioner di seluruh dunia.


Pengecoran

Seni dan kehidupan. Saadi Yacef (kanan) adalah pemimpin FLN di kehidupan nyata. Foto: Kobal

Saadi Yacef berperan sebagai pemimpin FLN fiksi, Jafar. Yacef, yang menulis memoar yang menjadi dasar film tersebut, adalah pemimpin FLN di kehidupan nyata, dan masih menjadi senator di parlemen Aljazair. Sementara itu, aktor Prancis Jean Martin memainkan Kolonel Philippe Mathieu fiksi, berdasarkan gabungan kolonel kehidupan nyata termasuk Marcel Bigeard, dan menggabungkan unsur-unsur Gen Jacques Massu dan Mayor Paul Aussaresses. Seperti para perwira itu, Martin benar-benar bertempur di Perlawanan Prancis dan di Indocina. Para pembuat film telah melampaui panggilan tugas – Reel sejarah tidak akan mengharapkan produser, katakanlah, Gladiator untuk mengumpulkan pemeran veteran sejati. Namun, itu tidak jauh lebih otentik dari ini.


Isi

Sekutu merencanakan invasi Anglo-Amerika ke Afrika Utara/Maghrib Prancis—Maroko, Aljazair, dan Tunisia, wilayah yang secara nominal berada di tangan pemerintah Prancis Vichy. Dengan pasukan Inggris maju dari Mesir, ini pada akhirnya akan memungkinkan Sekutu untuk melakukan operasi menjepit melawan pasukan Poros di Afrika Utara. Prancis Vichy memiliki sekitar 125.000 tentara di wilayah tersebut serta artileri pantai, 210 tank operasional tetapi ketinggalan zaman dan sekitar 500 pesawat, setengahnya adalah pejuang Dewoitine D.520—sama dengan banyak pejuang Inggris dan AS. [7] Pasukan ini termasuk 60.000 tentara di Maroko, 15.000 di Tunisia, dan 50.000 di Aljazair, dengan artileri pantai, dan sejumlah kecil tank dan pesawat. [8] Selain itu, ada sekitar 10 kapal perang dan 11 kapal selam di Casablanca.

Situasi politik di lapangan Sunting

Sekutu percaya bahwa pasukan Prancis Vichy tidak akan berperang, sebagian karena informasi yang diberikan oleh Konsul Amerika Robert Daniel Murphy di Aljir. Prancis adalah mantan anggota Sekutu dan pasukan Amerika diperintahkan untuk tidak menembak kecuali mereka ditembaki. [9] Namun, mereka memendam kecurigaan bahwa Angkatan Laut Prancis Vichy akan menaruh dendam atas tindakan Inggris pada bulan Juni 1940 untuk mencegah kapal Prancis diambil oleh Jerman serangan terhadap Angkatan Laut Prancis di pelabuhan di Mers-el-Kébir, dekat Oran, menewaskan hampir 1.300 pelaut Prancis. Penilaian simpati pasukan Prancis di Afrika Utara sangat penting, dan rencana dibuat untuk mengamankan kerja sama mereka, bukan perlawanan. Dukungan Jerman untuk Prancis Vichy datang dalam bentuk dukungan udara. Beberapa Luftwaffe sayap pembom melakukan serangan anti-kapal terhadap pelabuhan Sekutu di Aljir dan di sepanjang pantai Afrika Utara.

Perintah operasional Sunting

Jenderal Dwight D. Eisenhower diberi komando operasi, dan dia mendirikan markas besarnya di Gibraltar. Komandan Angkatan Laut Sekutu dari Pasukan Ekspedisi adalah Laksamana Sir Andrew Cunningham wakilnya adalah Wakil Laksamana Sir Bertram Ramsay, yang merencanakan pendaratan amfibi. [ kutipan diperlukan ]

Debat strategis di antara Sekutu Sunting

Komandan senior AS tetap sangat menentang pendaratan dan setelah Kepala Staf Gabungan Sekutu (CCS) barat bertemu di London pada 30 Juli 1942, Jenderal George Marshall dan Laksamana Ernest King menolak untuk menyetujui rencana tersebut. Marshall dan jenderal AS lainnya menganjurkan invasi ke Eropa utara akhir tahun itu, yang ditolak Inggris. [10] [11] Setelah Perdana Menteri Winston Churchill mendesak untuk mendarat di Afrika Utara Prancis pada tahun 1942, Marshall malah menyarankan kepada Presiden Franklin D. Roosevelt agar AS meninggalkan strategi pertama Jerman dan melakukan serangan di Pasifik. Roosevelt mengatakan tidak akan membantu Rusia. [12] Dengan Marshall tidak dapat membujuk Inggris untuk berubah pikiran, [13] Presiden Roosevelt memberikan perintah langsung bahwa Torch harus didahulukan dari operasi lain dan akan dilakukan pada tanggal sedini mungkin, salah satu dari hanya dua perintah langsung dia berikan kepada komandan militer selama perang.

Dalam melakukan perencanaannya, ahli strategi militer Sekutu perlu mempertimbangkan situasi politik di lapangan di Afrika Utara yang kompleks, serta aspek politik diplomatik eksternal. Amerika telah mengakui Petain dan pemerintah Vichy pada tahun 1940, sedangkan Inggris tidak dan sebaliknya mengakui pemerintahan Prancis Bebas di pengasingan Jenderal de Gaulle, dan setuju untuk mendanai mereka. Afrika Utara adalah bagian dari kerajaan kolonial Prancis dan secara nominal mendukung Vichy, tetapi dukungan itu jauh dari universal di kalangan penduduk. [14]

Peristiwa politik di lapangan berkontribusi, dan dalam beberapa kasus bahkan lebih utama daripada, aspek militer. Penduduk Prancis di Afrika Utara dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok: [14]

  1. Gaullists – Charles de Gaulle adalah titik kumpul bagi Komite Nasional Prancis[a] Ini terdiri dari pengungsi Prancis yang melarikan diri dari Prancis metropolitan daripada menyerah kepada Jerman, atau mereka yang tinggal dan bergabung dengan Perlawanan. Seorang pembantunya, Jenderal Leclerc, mengorganisir kekuatan tempur dan melakukan serangan pada tahun 1943 di sepanjang jalur 1.600 mil (2.600 km) dari Danau Chad ke Tripoli dan bergabung dengan Pasukan Delapan Jenderal Montgomery pada tanggal 25 Januari 1943. [14]
  2. Gerakan Pembebasan Prancis – beberapa pria Prancis yang tinggal di Afrika Utara dan beroperasi secara rahasia di bawah pengawasan Jerman mengorganisir "Gerakan Pembebasan Prancis" bawah tanah, yang bertujuan untuk membebaskan Prancis. Jenderal Henri Giraud, yang baru saja melarikan diri dari Jerman, kemudian menjadi pemimpinnya. Bentrokan pribadi antara de Gaulle dan Giraud mencegah Pasukan Prancis Merdeka dan kelompok Gerakan Pembebasan Prancis bersatu selama kampanye Afrika Utara (Obor). [14]
  3. Loyal pro-Vichy French – ada orang-orang yang tetap setia kepada Marshal Petain dan percaya bahwa kolaborasi dengan kekuatan Poros adalah metode terbaik untuk memastikan masa depan Prancis. Darlan adalah pengganti yang ditunjuk Petain. [14]

Strategi Amerika dalam merencanakan serangan harus memperhitungkan kompleksitas di lapangan. Para perencana berasumsi bahwa jika para pemimpin diberi dukungan militer Sekutu, mereka akan mengambil langkah-langkah untuk membebaskan diri mereka sendiri, dan AS memulai negosiasi terperinci di bawah Konsul Jenderal Amerika Robert Murphy di Rabat dengan Gerakan Pembebasan Prancis. Karena Inggris sudah secara diplomatis dan finansial berkomitmen untuk de Gaulle , jelas bahwa negosiasi dengan Gerakan Pembebasan Prancis harus dilakukan oleh Amerika, dan juga invasi. Karena loyalitas yang terbagi di antara kelompok-kelompok di lapangan, dukungan mereka tidak pasti, dan karena kebutuhan untuk menjaga kerahasiaan, rencana terperinci tidak dapat dibagikan dengan Prancis. [14]

Rencana Sekutu Sunting

Para perencana mengidentifikasi Oran, Aljir, dan Casablanca sebagai target utama. Idealnya juga akan ada pendaratan di Tunis untuk mengamankan Tunisia dan memfasilitasi pelarangan pasokan yang cepat melalui Tripoli ke pasukan Rommel di Libya. Namun, Tunis terlalu dekat dengan lapangan udara Axis di Sisilia dan Sardinia untuk harapan sukses. Sebuah kompromi akan mendarat di Bône (Annaba) di Aljazair timur, sekitar 300 mil (480 km) lebih dekat ke Tunis daripada Aljir. Sumber daya yang terbatas menentukan bahwa Sekutu hanya dapat melakukan tiga pendaratan dan Eisenhower – yang percaya bahwa rencana apa pun harus mencakup pendaratan di Oran dan Aljir – memiliki dua opsi utama: salah satu opsi barat, mendarat di Casablanca, Oran dan Aljir dan kemudian melakukan pendaratan secepat mungkin. perpindahan sejauh mungkin ke Tunis sekitar 500 mil (800 km) timur Aljir setelah oposisi Vichy ditekan atau opsi timur, untuk mendarat di Oran, Aljir dan Bône dan kemudian maju melalui darat ke Casablanca sekitar 500 mil (800 km) barat Oran. Dia menyukai opsi timur karena keuntungan yang diberikannya pada penangkapan awal Tunis dan juga karena gelombang Atlantik di Casablanca menimbulkan risiko yang jauh lebih besar terhadap pendaratan amfibi di sana daripada yang akan dihadapi di Mediterania.

Namun, Kepala Staf Gabungan khawatir bahwa jika Operasi Torch memicu Spanyol untuk meninggalkan netralitas dan bergabung dengan Poros, Selat Gibraltar dapat ditutup dengan memotong seluruh jalur komunikasi pasukan Sekutu. Oleh karena itu mereka memilih opsi Casablanca sebagai pilihan yang kurang berisiko karena pasukan di Aljazair dan Tunisia dapat dipasok melalui darat dari Casablanca (walaupun dengan kesulitan yang cukup besar) jika terjadi penutupan selat. [15]

Oposisi Marshall terhadap Torch menunda pendaratan hampir sebulan, dan penentangannya terhadap pendaratan di Aljazair membuat para pemimpin militer Inggris mempertanyakan kemampuan strategisnya. Pendaratan Maroko mengesampingkan pendudukan awal Tunisia. Eisenhower memberi tahu Patton bahwa enam minggu terakhir adalah yang paling sulit dalam hidupnya. [16] Dalam penerimaan Eisenhower atas pendaratan di Aljazair dan Maroko, dia menunjukkan bahwa keputusan tersebut menghapus penangkapan awal Tunis dari kemungkinan menjadi hanya kemungkinan jarak jauh karena waktu tambahan yang akan memungkinkan Poros untuk memindahkan pasukan ke Tunisia. [17]

Pengumpulan intelijen Sunting

Pada Juli 1941, Mieczysław Słowikowski (menggunakan nama kode "Rygor"—Bahasa Polandia untuk "Kekakuan") mendirikan "Agency Africa", salah satu organisasi intelijen paling sukses dalam Perang Dunia Kedua. [18] Sekutu Polandia-nya dalam upaya ini termasuk Letnan Kolonel Gwido Langer dan Mayor Maksymilian Ciężki. Informasi yang dikumpulkan oleh Badan digunakan oleh Amerika dan Inggris dalam merencanakan pendaratan amfibi November 1942 Operasi Torch [19] [20] di Afrika Utara.

Kontak awal dengan Vichy French Edit

Untuk mengukur perasaan pasukan Prancis Vichy, Murphy diangkat ke konsulat Amerika di Aljazair. Misi rahasianya adalah untuk menentukan suasana hati pasukan Prancis dan melakukan kontak dengan elemen-elemen yang mungkin mendukung invasi Sekutu. Ia berhasil menghubungi beberapa perwira Prancis, termasuk Jenderal Charles Mast, panglima tertinggi Prancis di Aljazair.

Perwira-perwira ini bersedia mendukung Sekutu tetapi meminta konferensi rahasia dengan seorang Jenderal senior Sekutu di Aljazair. Mayor Jenderal Mark W. Clark—salah satu komandan senior Eisenhower—dikirim ke Cherchell di Aljazair dengan kapal selam Inggris HMS Malaikat dan bertemu dengan para perwira Prancis Vichy ini pada 21 Oktober 1942.

Dengan bantuan dari Perlawanan, Sekutu juga berhasil menyelipkan Jenderal Prancis Henri Giraud dari Vichy Prancis dengan HMS Malaikat—menyamar sebagai kapal selam Amerika [21] —ke Gibraltar, tempat Eisenhower bermarkas, berniat menawarkan jabatan panglima tertinggi pasukan Prancis di Afrika Utara setelah invasi. Namun, Giraud tidak akan mengambil posisi lebih rendah dari panglima tertinggi semua pasukan penyerang, pekerjaan yang sudah diberikan kepada Eisenhower. [22] Ketika dia ditolak, dia memutuskan untuk tetap menjadi "penonton dalam urusan ini". [23]

Sekutu mengorganisir tiga gugus tugas amfibi untuk secara bersamaan merebut pelabuhan dan bandara utama di Maroko dan Aljazair, menargetkan Casablanca, Oran dan Aljir. Penyelesaian yang berhasil dari operasi ini diikuti oleh kemajuan ke arah timur ke Tunisia.

Satuan Tugas Barat (ditujukan ke Casablanca) terdiri dari unit-unit Amerika, dengan Mayor Jenderal George S. Patton sebagai komando dan Laksamana Muda Henry Kent Hewitt memimpin operasi angkatan laut. Gugus Tugas Barat ini terdiri dari Divisi Infanteri ke-3 dan ke-9 AS, dan dua batalyon dari Divisi Lapis Baja ke-2 AS — 35.000 tentara dalam konvoi lebih dari 100 kapal. Mereka diangkut langsung dari Amerika Serikat dalam rangkaian pertama konvoi UG yang memberikan dukungan logistik untuk kampanye Afrika Utara. [24]

Gugus Tugas Pusat, yang ditujukan ke Oran, termasuk Batalyon ke-2 AS, Resimen Infantri Parasut ke-509, Divisi Infanteri ke-1 AS, dan Divisi Lapis Baja AS ke-1—total 18.500 tentara. Mereka berlayar dari Inggris dan dikomandoi oleh Mayor Jenderal Lloyd Fredendall, pasukan angkatan laut dikomandoi oleh Komodor Thomas Troubridge.

Torch adalah, untuk tujuan propaganda, pendaratan oleh pasukan AS, didukung oleh kapal perang dan pesawat Inggris, di bawah keyakinan bahwa ini akan lebih cocok untuk opini publik Prancis, daripada invasi Anglo-Amerika. Untuk alasan yang sama, Churchill menyarankan agar tentara Inggris mengenakan seragam Angkatan Darat AS, meskipun tidak ada bukti bahwa taktik ini diterapkan. [25] (Pesawat Armada Udara memang membawa peluru "bintang" AS selama operasi, [26] dan dua kapal perusak Inggris menerbangkan Stars and Stripes. [25] ) Kenyataannya, Gugus Tugas Timur—yang ditujukan ke Aljir—diperintahkan oleh Letnan Jenderal Kenneth Anderson dan terdiri dari brigade dari Divisi Infanteri ke-78 Inggris dan ke-34 AS, bersama dengan dua unit komando Inggris (Komando No. 1 dan No. 6), bersama dengan Resimen RAF yang menyediakan 5 skuadron infanteri dan 5 Penerbangan anti-pesawat ringan, total 20.000 tentara. Selama fase pendaratan, pasukan darat dikomandoi oleh Mayor Jenderal AS Charles W. Ryder, Komandan Jenderal (CG) Divisi ke-34 dan pasukan angkatan laut dikomandoi oleh Wakil Laksamana Angkatan Laut Kerajaan Sir Harold Burrough.

U-boat, yang beroperasi di wilayah Atlantik timur yang dilintasi konvoi invasi, telah ditarik untuk menyerang konvoi perdagangan SL 125. [27] Operasi udara dibagi menjadi dua komando, dengan pesawat Inggris di bawah komando Marsekal Udara Sir William Welsh beroperasi di timur Cape Tenez di Aljazair, dan semua pesawat Amerika di bawah Mayor Jenderal Jimmy Doolittle, yang berada di bawah komando langsung Mayor Jenderal Patton, yang beroperasi di barat Cape Tenez. P-40 dari Kelompok Tempur ke-33 diluncurkan dari kapal induk pengawal Angkatan Laut AS dan mendarat di Port Lyautey pada 10 November. Dukungan udara tambahan disediakan oleh kapal induk USS penjaga hutan, yang skuadronnya mencegat pesawat Vichy dan membom kapal musuh.

Casablanca Sunting

Gugus Tugas Barat mendarat sebelum fajar pada 8 November 1942, di tiga titik di Maroko: Safi (Operasi Blackstone), Fedala (Operasi Brushwood, pendaratan terbesar dengan 19.000 orang), dan Mehdiya-Port Lyautey (Operasi Goalpost). Karena diharapkan Prancis tidak akan melawan, tidak ada pemboman awal. Ini terbukti menjadi kesalahan yang mahal karena pertahanan Prancis merugikan pasukan pendaratan Amerika. Pada malam 7 November, Jenderal Antoine Béthouart yang pro-Sekutu berusaha untuk kudeta melawan komando Prancis di Maroko, sehingga ia bisa menyerah kepada Sekutu keesokan harinya. Pasukannya mengepung vila Jenderal Charles Nogus, komisaris tinggi yang setia pada Vichy. Namun, pasukan setia Nogu menelepon, yang menghentikan kudeta. Selain itu, upaya kudeta memperingatkan Noguès tentang invasi Sekutu yang akan datang, dan dia segera memperkuat pertahanan pantai Prancis.

Di Safi, tujuannya adalah merebut fasilitas pelabuhan untuk mendaratkan tank medium Gugus Tugas Barat, pendaratan sebagian besar berhasil. [28] Pendaratan dimulai tanpa perlindungan api, dengan harapan Prancis tidak akan melawan sama sekali. Namun, begitu baterai pesisir Prancis melepaskan tembakan, kapal perang Sekutu membalas tembakan. Pada saat Batalyon ke-3, Resimen Lapis Baja ke-67 tiba, penembak jitu Prancis telah menyematkan pasukan penyerang (kebanyakan dari mereka dalam pertempuran untuk pertama kalinya) di pantai Safi. Sebagian besar pendaratan terjadi di belakang jadwal. Pesawat pengangkut menghancurkan konvoi truk Prancis yang membawa bala bantuan ke pertahanan pantai. Safi menyerah pada sore hari tanggal 8 November. Pada 10 November, para pembela yang tersisa ditembaki, dan sebagian besar pasukan Harmon berlomba untuk bergabung dalam pengepungan Casablanca.

Di Port-Lyautey, pasukan pendaratan tidak yakin dengan posisi mereka, dan gelombang kedua tertunda. Ini memberi para pembela Prancis waktu untuk mengatur perlawanan, dan pendaratan yang tersisa dilakukan di bawah pemboman artileri. Dengan bantuan dukungan udara dari kapal induk, pasukan maju terus, dan sasaran berhasil ditangkap. Di Fedala, cuaca mengganggu pendaratan. Pantai pendaratan kembali diserang Prancis setelah fajar menyingsing. Patton mendarat pada pukul 08:00, dan tempat berpijak diamankan di kemudian hari. Amerika mengepung pelabuhan Casablanca pada 10 November, dan kota itu menyerah satu jam sebelum serangan terakhir akan terjadi. Casablanca adalah pangkalan angkatan laut Atlantik Prancis utama setelah pendudukan Jerman di pantai Eropa. Pertempuran Laut Casablanca dihasilkan dari serangan mendadak kapal penjelajah, kapal perusak, dan kapal selam Prancis yang menentang pendaratan. Sebuah kapal penjelajah, enam kapal perusak, dan enam kapal selam dihancurkan oleh tembakan dan pesawat Amerika. Kapal perang Prancis yang tidak lengkap Jean Bart—yang berlabuh dan tidak bergerak — ditembakkan ke pasukan pendarat dengan satu menara meriamnya yang berfungsi sampai dinonaktifkan oleh tembakan angkatan laut Amerika kaliber 16 inci dari USS Massachusetts, peluru kaliber berat pertama yang ditembakkan oleh Angkatan Laut AS di manapun selama Perang Dunia II. Dua kapal perusak AS rusak.

Oran Sunting

Gugus Tugas Pusat dibagi antara tiga pantai, dua di barat Oran dan satu di timur. Pendaratan di pantai paling barat tertunda karena konvoi Prancis yang muncul saat kapal penyapu ranjau sedang membersihkan jalan. Beberapa keterlambatan dan kebingungan, dan kerusakan kapal pendaratan, disebabkan oleh kedangkalan air dan gundukan pasir yang tidak terduga meskipun pengamatan periskop telah dilakukan, tidak ada pihak pengintai yang mendarat di pantai untuk menentukan kondisi maritim setempat. Ini membantu menginformasikan serangan amfibi berikutnya—seperti Operation Overlord—di mana bobot yang cukup besar diberikan pada pengintaian pra-invasi.

Batalyon Ranger 1 AS mendarat di timur Oran dan dengan cepat menangkap baterai pantai di Arzew. Sebuah upaya dilakukan untuk mendaratkan infanteri AS di pelabuhan secara langsung, untuk dengan cepat mencegah perusakan fasilitas pelabuhan dan kapal yang tercecer. Operasi Cadangan gagal, karena keduanya Banff- kapal selam kelas dihancurkan oleh baku tembak dari kapal Prancis di sana. Armada angkatan laut Prancis Vichy keluar dari pelabuhan dan menyerang armada invasi Sekutu tetapi semua kapalnya tenggelam atau terdampar ke darat. [29] Komandan Reservist, Kapten Frederick Thornton Peters, dianugerahi Victoria Cross untuk keberanian dalam mendorong serangan melalui pelabuhan Oran dalam menghadapi tembakan titik kosong. [30] [31] Baterai Prancis dan armada invasi saling tembak sepanjang 8–9 November, dengan pasukan Prancis mempertahankan Oran dan daerah sekitarnya dengan keras kepala dibombardir oleh kapal perang Inggris yang menyebabkan Oran menyerah pada 9 November.

Pendaratan di udara Sunting

Torch adalah serangan udara besar pertama yang dilakukan oleh Amerika Serikat. Batalyon ke-2, Resimen Infanteri Parasut 509, di atas 39 C-47 Dakota, terbang jauh-jauh dari Cornwall di Inggris, melewati Spanyol, untuk turun di dekat Oran dan merebut lapangan terbang di Tafraoui dan La Sénia, masing-masing 15 mil (24 km) dan 5 mil (8 km) selatan Oran. [32] Operasi itu ditandai dengan masalah komunikasi dan navigasi karena anti-pesawat dan kapal suar HMS alynbank siaran pada frekuensi yang salah. [33] Cuaca buruk di Spanyol dan jangkauan ekstrim menyebabkan formasi menyebar dan memaksa 30 dari 37 transportasi udara mendarat di danau garam kering di sebelah barat tujuan. [34] Dari pesawat lain, satu pilot menjadi bingung dan mendaratkan pesawatnya di Gibraltar. Dua lainnya mendarat di Maroko Prancis dan tiga di Maroko Spanyol, di mana seorang Dakota lainnya tidak sengaja menjatuhkan pasukan terjun payungnya. Sebanyak 67 tentara Amerika diinternir oleh pasukan Franco sampai Februari 1943. Tafraoui dan La Sénia akhirnya ditangkap tetapi peran yang dimainkan oleh pasukan udara dalam Operasi Torch sangat minim. [33] [35]

Aljir Sunting

Perlawanan dan kudeta Sunting

Seperti yang disepakati di Cherchell, pada dini hari tanggal 8 November, 400 pejuang Perlawanan Prancis yang sebagian besar adalah Yahudi dari Grup Géo Gras melancarkan kudeta di kota Aljir. [36] Mulai tengah malam, pasukan di bawah komando Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie dan José Aboulker merebut sasaran-sasaran utama, termasuk pertukaran telepon, stasiun radio, rumah gubernur dan markas besar Korps ke-19.

Robert Murphy membawa beberapa orang dan kemudian pergi ke kediaman Jenderal Alphonse Juin, perwira senior Angkatan Darat Prancis di Afrika Utara. Sementara mereka mengepung rumahnya (menjadikan Juin sebagai sandera) Murphy berusaha membujuknya untuk berpihak pada Sekutu. Juin disuguhi kejutan: Laksamana François Darlan—komandan semua pasukan Prancis—juga berada di Aljazair dalam kunjungan pribadi. Juin bersikeras untuk menghubungi Darlan dan Murphy tidak dapat membujuk keduanya untuk memihak Sekutu. Di pagi hari, Gendarmerie setempat tiba dan membebaskan Juin dan Darlan.

Sunting Invasi

Pada 8 November 1942, invasi dimulai dengan pendaratan di tiga pantai—dua di barat Aljir dan satu di timur. Pasukan pendaratan berada di bawah komando keseluruhan Mayor Jenderal Charles W. Ryder, komandan jenderal Divisi Infanteri ke-34 AS. Grup Brigade ke-11 dari Divisi Infanteri 78 Inggris mendarat di pantai sebelah kanan Tim Tempur Resimen ke-168 AS, dari Divisi Infanteri ke-34, didukung oleh 6 Komando dan sebagian besar dari 1 Komando, mendarat di pantai tengah dan Resimen Tempur ke-39 AS Tim, juga dari Divisi Infanteri ke-34 AS, didukung oleh sisa 5 pasukan dari 1 Komando, mendarat di pantai sebelah kiri. Grup Brigade ke-36 dari Divisi Infanteri ke-78 Inggris berdiri di cadangan mengambang. [37] Meskipun beberapa pendaratan pergi ke pantai yang salah, ini tidak penting karena kurangnya oposisi Prancis. Semua baterai pesisir telah dinetralkan oleh Perlawanan Prancis dan satu komandan Prancis membelot ke Sekutu. Satu-satunya pertempuran terjadi di pelabuhan Aljazair, di mana di Terminal Operasi, dua kapal perusak Inggris berusaha mendaratkan pasukan Penjaga Angkatan Darat AS langsung ke dermaga, untuk mencegah Prancis menghancurkan fasilitas pelabuhan dan menenggelamkan kapal mereka. Tembakan artileri berat mencegah satu kapal perusak mendarat tetapi yang lain mampu menurunkan 250 Penjaga sebelum kapal itu juga didorong kembali ke laut. [29] Pasukan AS mendorong dengan cepat ke pedalaman dan Jenderal Juin menyerahkan kota itu kepada Sekutu pada pukul 18:00.

Hasil politik Sunting

Dengan cepat menjadi jelas bahwa Giraud tidak memiliki wewenang untuk mengambil alih komando pasukan Prancis. Dia lebih suka menunggu di Gibraltar untuk hasil pendaratan. Namun, Darlan di Aljazair memiliki otoritas seperti itu. Eisenhower, dengan dukungan Roosevelt dan Churchill, membuat kesepakatan dengan Darlan, mengakui dia sebagai "Komisaris Tinggi" Prancis di Afrika Utara. Sebagai imbalannya, Darlan memerintahkan semua pasukan Prancis di Afrika Utara untuk menghentikan perlawanan terhadap Sekutu dan malah bekerja sama. Kesepakatan itu dibuat pada 10 November, dan perlawanan Prancis berhenti hampir seketika. Pasukan Prancis di Afrika Utara yang belum tertangkap tunduk dan akhirnya bergabung dengan pasukan Sekutu. [38] Pria dari Afrika Utara Prancis akan melihat banyak pertempuran di bawah panji Sekutu sebagai bagian dari Korps Ekspedisi Prancis (terdiri dari 112.000 tentara pada April 1944) dalam kampanye Italia, di mana Maghrebis (kebanyakan Maroko) terdiri lebih dari 60% dari tentara satuan. [39]

Ketika Adolf Hitler mengetahui kesepakatan Darlan dengan Sekutu, dia segera memerintahkan pendudukan Vichy Prancis dan mengirim pasukan ke Tunisia. Pers Amerika memprotes, segera menjulukinya "Kesepakatan Darlan", menunjukkan bahwa Roosevelt telah melakukan tawar-menawar yang berani dengan boneka Hitler di Prancis. Jika tujuan utama Torch awalnya adalah pembebasan Afrika Utara, beberapa jam kemudian hal itu telah dibuang demi perjalanan yang aman melalui Afrika Utara. Giraud akhirnya mengambil alih jabatan itu ketika Darlan dibunuh enam minggu kemudian. [40]

Perjanjian Eisenhower/Darlan berarti bahwa pejabat yang ditunjuk oleh rezim Vichy akan tetap berkuasa di Afrika Utara. Tidak ada peran yang diberikan untuk Prancis Bebas, yang seharusnya menjadi pemerintah Prancis di pengasingan dan telah mengambil alih di koloni Prancis lainnya. Itu sangat menyinggung Charles de Gaulle, kepala Free France. Itu juga menyinggung sebagian besar publik Inggris dan Amerika, yang menganggap semua orang Prancis Vichy sebagai kolaborator Nazi dan Darlan sebagai salah satu yang terburuk. Eisenhower bersikeras, bagaimanapun, bahwa dia tidak punya pilihan nyata jika pasukannya bergerak melawan Poros di Tunisia, daripada melawan Prancis di Aljazair dan Maroko.

Meskipun de Gaulle tidak memiliki kekuasaan resmi di Vichy Afrika Utara, sebagian besar penduduknya sekarang secara terbuka menyatakan kesetiaan Prancis Merdeka, memberi tekanan pada Darlan. Pada 24 Desember, Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle, seorang pejuang perlawanan Prancis dan monarki anti-fasis, membunuh Darlan. (Bonnier de La Chapelle ditangkap di tempat dan dieksekusi dua hari kemudian.)

Giraud menggantikan Darlan tetapi, seperti dia, menggantikan beberapa pejabat Vichy. Dia bahkan memerintahkan penangkapan para pemimpin kudeta Aljazair pada 8 November, tanpa perlawanan dari Murphy.

Pemerintah Afrika Utara Prancis secara bertahap menjadi aktif dalam upaya perang Sekutu. Pasukan Prancis yang terbatas di Tunisia tidak melawan pasukan Jerman yang datang melalui udara Laksamana Esteva, sang komandan, mematuhi perintah dari Vichy. Jerman mengambil lapangan terbang di sana dan membawa lebih banyak pasukan. Pasukan Prancis mundur ke barat dan, dalam beberapa hari, mulai bertempur melawan Jerman, didorong oleh detasemen kecil Amerika dan Inggris yang telah mencapai daerah itu. Meskipun efek militernya minimal, hal itu membuat Prancis berpihak pada pihak Sekutu. Kemudian, semua pasukan Prancis ditarik dari aksi dan diperlengkapi dengan baik oleh Sekutu.

Giraud mendukung itu tetapi juga lebih suka mempertahankan pemerintahan Vichy lama di Afrika Utara. Di bawah tekanan dari Sekutu dan pendukung de Gaulle, rezim Prancis bergeser, dengan pejabat Vichy secara bertahap diganti dan dekrit yang lebih ofensif dicabut. Pada bulan Juni 1943, Giraud dan de Gaulle setuju untuk membentuk Komite Pembebasan Nasional Prancis (CFLN), dengan anggota dari pemerintah Afrika Utara dan dari Komite Nasional Prancis de Gaulle. Pada November 1943, de Gaulle menjadi kepala CFLN dan de jure kepala pemerintahan Perancis dan diakui oleh AS dan Inggris.

Dalam hasil politik lain dari Torch (dan atas perintah Darlan), pemerintah Afrika Barat Prancis yang sebelumnya Vichy bergabung dengan Sekutu.

Konsekuensi militer Sunting

Toulon Sunting

Salah satu persyaratan Gencatan Senjata Kedua di Compiègne yang disetujui oleh Jerman adalah bahwa Prancis selatan akan tetap bebas dari pendudukan Jerman dan diperintah oleh Vichy. Kurangnya perlawanan yang gigih oleh Prancis Vichy terhadap invasi Sekutu ke Afrika Utara dan kebijakan baru de Gaulle di Afrika Utara meyakinkan Jerman bahwa Prancis tidak dapat dipercaya. Selain itu, kehadiran Anglo-Amerika di Afrika Utara Prancis membatalkan satu-satunya alasan nyata untuk tidak menduduki seluruh Prancis karena itu adalah satu-satunya cara praktis untuk menolak penggunaan koloni Prancis oleh Sekutu. Jerman dan Italia segera menduduki Prancis selatan, dan pasukan Jerman bergerak untuk merebut armada Prancis di pelabuhan Toulon mulai 10 November. Kekuatan angkatan laut Poros di Mediterania akan sangat meningkat jika Jerman berhasil merebut kapal-kapal Prancis, tetapi setiap kapal penting ditenggelamkan di dermaga oleh Angkatan Laut Prancis sebelum Jerman dapat mengambilnya.

Tunisia Sunting

Setelah pendudukan Jerman dan Italia di Prancis Vichy dan upaya mereka yang gagal untuk merebut armada Prancis di Toulon (Operasi Lila), Prancis Armée d'Afrique memihak Sekutu, menyediakan korps ketiga (Korps XIX) untuk Anderson. Di tempat lain, kapal perang Prancis, seperti kapal perang Richelieu, bergabung kembali dengan Sekutu.

Pada 9 November, pasukan Poros mulai terbentuk di Tunisia Prancis, tanpa perlawanan dari pasukan Prancis lokal di bawah Jenderal Barré. Didera kebimbangan, Barré memindahkan pasukannya ke perbukitan dan membentuk garis pertahanan dari Teboursouk melalui Medjez el Bab dan memerintahkan agar siapa pun yang mencoba melewati garis itu akan ditembak. Pada 19 November, komandan Jerman, Walter Nehring, menuntut pasukannya menyeberangi jembatan di Medjez dan ditolak. Jerman menyerang unit Prancis yang tidak dilengkapi dengan baik dua kali dan dipukul mundur. Prancis telah menderita banyak korban dan kekurangan artileri dan baju besi, Barré terpaksa mundur. [41]

Setelah berkonsolidasi di Aljazair, Sekutu memulai Kampanye Tunisia. Elements of the First Army (Lieutenant-General Kenneth Anderson), came to within 40 mi (64 km) of Tunis before a counterattack at Djedeida thrust them back. In January 1943, German and Italian troops under Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel, retreating westward from Libya, reached Tunisia.

The Eighth Army (Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery) advancing from the east, stopped around Tripoli while the port was repaired to disembark reinforcements and build up the Allied advantage. In the west, the forces of the First Army came under attack at the end of January, were forced back from the Faïd Pass and suffered a reversal at the Battle of Sidi Bou Zid on 14–15 February. Axis forces pushed on to Sbeitla and then fought the Battle of Kasserine Pass on 19 February, where the US II Corps retreated in disarray until Allied reinforcements halted the Axis advance on 22 February. Fredendall was sacked and replaced by George Patton.

General Sir Harold Alexander arrived in Tunisia in late February to take charge of the new 18th Army Group headquarters, which had been created to command the Eighth Army and the Allied forces already fighting in Tunisia. The Axis forces attacked eastward at the Battle of Medenine on 6 March but were easily repulsed by the Eighth Army. Rommel advised Hitler to allow a full retreat to a defensible line but was denied and on 9 March, Rommel left Tunisia to be replaced by Jürgen von Arnim, who had to spread his forces over 100 mi (160 km) of northern Tunisia.

The setbacks at Kasserine forced the Allies to consolidate their forces, develop their lines of communication and administration before another offensive. The First and Eighth Armies attacked again in April. Hard fighting followed but the Allies cut off the Germans and Italians from support by naval and air forces between Tunisia and Sicily. On 6 May, as the culmination of Operation Vulcan, the British took Tunis and American forces reached Bizerte. By 13 May, the Axis forces in Tunisia had surrendered, opening the way for the Allied invasion of Sicily in July.

Despite Operation Torch's role in the war and logistical success, it has been largely overlooked in many popular histories of the war and in general cultural influence. [42] Sang Ekonom speculated that to be because French forces were the initial enemies of the landing, making for a difficult fit into the war's overall narrative in general histories. [42]

The operation was America's first armed deployment in the Arab world since the Barbary Wars and, according to Sang Ekonom, laid the foundations for America's postwar Middle East policy. [42]


Barbary Pirates and English Slaves

For over 300 years, the coastlines of the south west of England were at the mercy of Barbary pirates (corsairs) from the coast of North Africa, based mainly in the ports of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli. Their number included not only North Africans but also English and Dutch privateers. Their aim was to capture slaves for the Arab slave markets in North Africa.

The Barbary pirates attacked and plundered not only those countries bordering the Mediterranean but as far north as the English Channel, Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, with the western coast of England almost being raided at will.

Partly as a result of an inadequate naval deterrent, by the early 17th century the situation was so bad that an entry in the Calendar of State Papers in May 1625 stated, ‘The Turks are upon our coasts. They take ships only to take the men to make slaves of them.’

Barbary pirates raided on land as well as at sea. In August 1625 corsairs raided Mount’s Bay, Cornwall, capturing 60 men, women and children and taking them into slavery. In 1626 St Keverne was repeatedly attacked, and boats out of Looe, Penzance, Mousehole and other Cornish ports were boarded, their crews taken captive and the empty ships left to drift. It was feared that there were around 60 Barbary men-of-war prowling the Devon and Cornish coasts and attacks were now occurring almost daily.

Sir John Eliot, Vice Admiral of Devon, declared that the seas around England “seem’d theirs.”

The situation was so bad that in December 1640 a Committee for Algiers was set up by Parliament to oversee the ransoming of captives. At that time it was reported that there were some 3,000 to 5,000 English people in captivity in Algiers. Charities were also set up to help ransom the captives and local fishing communities clubbed together to raise money to liberate their own.

In 1645, another raid by Barbary pirates on the Cornish coast saw 240 men, women and children kidnapped. The following year Parliament sent Edmund Cason to Algiers to negotiate the ransom and release of English captives. He paid on average £30 per man (women were more expensive to ransom) and managed to free some 250 people before he ran out of money. Cason spent the last 8 years of his life trying to arrange the release of a further 400.

By the 1650s the attacks were so frequent that they threatened England’s fishing industry with fishermen reluctant to put to sea, leaving their families unprotected ashore.

Oliver Cromwell decided to take action and decreed that any captured corsairs should be taken to Bristol and slowly drowned. Lundy Island, where pirates from the Republic of Salé had made their base, was attacked and bombarded, but despite this, the corsairs continued to mount raids on the coastal towns and villages in Cornwall, Devon and Dorset.

Those kidnapped would be sent to the slave markets of the Ottoman Empire to be bought as labourers or concubines, or pressed into the galleys where they would man the oars. The Spanish novelist Miguel de Cervantes, author of ‘Don Quixote’, was a captive in Algiers between 1575 and 1580, when he was ransomed by his parents and the Trinitarians, a Catholic religious order.

The Barbary slave trade even features in Samuel Pepys’ diary, in an entry from 8th February 1661:

‘…went to the Fleece Tavern to drink and there we spent till four o’clock, telling stories of Algiers, and the manner of the life of slaves there! And truly Captn. Mootham and Mr. Dawes (who have been both slaves there) did make me fully acquainted with their condition there: as, how they eat nothing but bread and water. … How they are beat upon the soles of their feet and bellies at the liberty of their padron. How they are all, at night, called into their master’s Bagnard and there they lie. How the poorest men do use their slaves best. How some rogues do live well, if they do invent to bring their masters in so much a week by their industry or theft and then they are put to no other work at all. And theft there is counted no great crime at all…’

Something had to be done. In 1675 Sir John Narborough, backed by a Royal Navy squadron, managed to negotiate a peace with Tunis. A heavy naval bombardment by the British then brought about a similar peace with Tripoli.

Algiers was also attacked from the sea, not only by British warships but also by the French and Spanish. The United States fought two wars against the Barbary States of North Africa: the First Barbary War of 1801–1805 and the Second Barbary War, 1815 – 1816. Finally after an attack by the British and Dutch in 1816 more than 4,000 Christian slaves were liberated and the power of the Barbary pirates was broken.


Offer of Charles V

Seeing his extraordinary skills in capturing and conquering regions after regions, Emperor Charles V offered fascinating positions to Barbarossa including the ruler of Spanish territories in North Africa and Chief admiral of the Spanish fleet. Barbarossa declined the offer.

This enraged the emperor and he laid siege to the corsair state of Algiers to end the constant threat to Spanish territories and Christian ships in the Mediterranean. However, because of terrible weather and incompatible season for the naval battles, the fleets led by Andrea Doria and Hernán Cortés failed to influence the emperor to change his decision of battle.

Thus Andrea Doria and his forces couldn’t bear the violent storms of the Mediterranean and took his fleet to open water to avoid any unfortunate events. However, much of the Charles forces fought on the ground with Barbarossa’s forces but failed to conquer them. Thus, Charles’s forces were evacuated, and the decision of ending Barbarossa’s rule backfired with a shame of withdrawing and supposedly defeat.


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Setting the Record Straight: White Europeans Were Captured and Traded as Slaves for Centuries

The Barbary Coast increased in influence in the 15th century, when the Ottoman Empire took over as rulers of the area. Coupled with this was an influx of Sephardi Jews and Moorish refugees, newly expelled from Spain after the Reconquista. These markets prospered while the states were nominally under Ottoman suzerainty, but in reality they were mostly autonomous.

Many Muslim ship captains who raided Spanish coastal cities were Jewish. The most important of these was Sinan, called “The Great Jew,” who would later be called the Muslim name of Kaptan Pasha. He was the leader of Barbarossa’s Muslim fleet. He captured Tunis from Spain in 1534. Much of the Spanish fleet was destroyed by Sinan in 1538. Meanwhile, Portuguese Jews (Morranos) were rearming Turkish Muslims. One of Sinan’s biggest operations was ravaging coastal Catholic districts of South Italy and Sicily in 1553 and hauling off tens of thousands of slaves.

The second major Jewish pirate was Samuel Palache and his brother (aka the “Pirate Merchants”), who left Spain and settled in Fez Morroco. He operated out of Tetuan, a pirate port infestation astride the Strait of Gibraltar.

With Ottoman protection and a host of destitute immigrants, the coastline soon became reputed for piracy. Crews from the seized ships were either enslaved or ransomed. Between 1580 and 1680, Barbary had around 15,000 active renegados or slave raiders.

The power and influence of these pirates during this time was such that nations, including the United States, paid tribute in order to stave off their attacks.

The white slave trade actually pre-dates the Reconquista. The Black Moors were Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors were initially of Berber and Arab descent.

In 711, the Muslim Moors invaded the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa and called the territory Al-Andalus, which at its peak included most of modern-day Spain, Portugal and Septimania. The Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily in 827, developing it as a port, and they eventually consolidated the rest of the island and some of southern Italy.

Differences in religion and culture led to a centuries-long conflict with the Christian kingdoms of Europe, which tried to reclaim control of Muslim areas. This conflict was referred to as the Reconquista. Spain was reunited under Christian rule in 1492.

The original indigenous Barbary Berbers were dark-brown peoples of the Sahara and the Sahel, mainly those called Fulani, Tugareg, Zenagha of Southern Morocco, Kunta and Tebbu of the Sahel countries, as well as other dark-brown Arabs now living in Mauretania and throughout the Sahel, including the Trarza of Mauretania and Senegal, the Mogharba as well as dozens of other Sudanese tribes, the Chaamba of Chad and Algeria.

These dark skinned peoples were also integral as slavers in the black slave trade to the Americas. They captured and brought the slaves to coastal trading outposts.

Anthropologist Dana Reynolds traced the African roots of the original North African peoples through a dozen Greek and Byzantine (neo-Roman writers) from the first to the sixth century A.D.

“They describe the Berber population of Northern Africa as dark-skinned and woolly-haired,” she said.

Among these writers who wrote about the Berbers were Martial, Silius Italicus, Corippus and Procopius.

In 1544, the island of Ischia off Naples was ransacked by Africans, taking 4,000 inhabitants prisoners, while some 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari Island off the north coast of Sicily were enslaved.

Turgut Reis, a Turkish pirate chief, ransacked the coastal settlements of Granada (Spain) in 1663 and carried away 4,000 people as slaves.

Paul Baepler’s “White Slaves, African Masters: An Anthology of American Barbary Captivity Narratives” lists a collection of essays by nine American captives held in North Africa.

According to Baepler, there were more than 20,000 white Christian slaves by 1620 in Algiers alone. Their number swelled to more than 30,000 men and 2,000 women by the 1630s.

There were a minimum of 25,000 white slaves at any time in Sultan Moulay Ismail’s palace, records Ahmed ez-Zayyani.

Algiers maintained a population of 25,000 white slaves between 1550 and 1730, and their numbers could double at certain times.

During the same period, Tunis and Tripoli each maintained a white slave population of about 7,500.

The Barbary pirates enslaved some 5,000 Europeans annually over a period of nearly three centuries.

In the first years of the 19th century, the United States, allied with European nations, fought and won the first and the second Barbary Wars against the Barbary pirates. The wars were a direct response of the American, British, French and the Dutch states to the raids and the slave trade by the Barbary pirates against them.

The Barbary pirates refused to cease their slaving operations, resulting in another bombardment by a Royal Navy fleet against Algiers in 1824. France invaded Algiers in 1830, placing it under colonial rule and finally ending the trade.

Slavic Slave Trade

The white slavery in the East was even larger and even more hidden or unknown than the Barbary slavery.

For more than three centuries, the military of the Crimean Khanate and the Nogai Horde conducted slave raids into eastern Europe.

Sixteenth- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbul’s additional slave imports from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1450 to 1700.

These raids began after Crimea became independent in 1441 and lasted until the peninsula came under Russian control in 1774. The isthmus topography of the Crimea peninsula allowed for natural fortification and it’s far southern location stretched out the Russian/Ukrainian/Polish supply lines required to take it. In contrast the open prairies of the Ukraine allowed for the rapid deployment of mounted slave raiders.

The figures of white Slavic enslavement must be considered in context. The population of Tatar Khanate was only about 400,000 at the time. A considerable part of the male population of Crimea took part in these campaigns. In later years, slaves and freedmen formed approximately 75 percent of the Crimean population.

The main slave market was in Caffa. After 1475, it was part of the coastal strip of Crimea that belonged to the Ottomans. In the 1570s, at its peak, close to 20,000 enslaved Slavs were auctioned each year in Caffa. The town had artillery and a strong garrison of Janissaries (originally Slavic slaves).

Besides Caffa, slaves were sold in Karasubazar, Tuzleri, Bakhchysarai and Khazleve. For the right to trade, they paid tax to the Crimean Khan and Turkish Pasha.

Michalo Lituanus described Caffa as “an insatiable and lawless abyss, drinking our blood.” Besides the bad food, water, clothing and shelter, they were subjected to exhausting labor and abuse.

According to Litvin, “The stronger slaves were castrated, others had their noses and ears slit and were branded on the forehead or cheek. By day they were tormented with forced labor and at night kept in dungeons.”

Muslim, Armenian, Jewish and Greek traders all purchased Slavic slaves in Caffa often transporting them to the slave market in Istanbul.

The main economic goal of the raids was booty, some of it material, but most of it human. These human-trade goods were mostly sold to the Ottoman Empire, although some remained in Crimea.

A compilation of partial statistics and estimates indicates that almost two million Russians, Ukrainians and Poles were seized between 1468 and 1694. Additionally, there were slaves from the Caucasus obtained by a mixture of raiding and trading.

Most of the raids fell on territory of today’s Russia and Ukraine, lands previously divided between Muscovy and Lithuania, although some fell on Moldavia and Circassia (North Caucasus).

The Russian population of the borderland suffered annual Tatar invasions and tens of thousands of soldiers were required to protect the southern boundaries. This was a heavy burden for the state, and slowed its social and economic development. Since Crimean Tatars did not permit settlement of Russians to southern regions where the soil is better and the season is long enough, Muscovy had to depend on poorer regions and labour-intensive agriculture.

In 1683 alone, the Ottoman army, although defeated, returned from the Gates of Vienna with 80,000 white European captives from the Balkans.

Records indicate Tatar slave-raiding Khans returned with

  • 18,000 slaves from Poland (1463)
  • 100,000 from Lvov, present day western Ukraine- (1498)
  • 60,000 from South Russia (1515)
  • 50,000–100,000 from Galicia (1516, during the “harvesting of the steppe”)
  • 800,000 from Moscovy (1521)
  • 200,000 from South Russia (1555)
  • 100,000 from Moscovy (1571)
  • 50,000 from Poland (1612)
  • 60,000 from South Russia (1646)
  • 100,000 from Poland (1648)
  • 300,000 from Ukraine (1654)
  • 20,000 from Putivl (1662)
  • 400,000 from Valynia (1676)
  • Thousands from Poland (1694)

Sources suggest that in the few years between 1436 and 1442, before the Crimea operation embarked, some 500,000 people were seized in the Balkans. Many of the captives died in forced marches towards Anatolia, Turkey.

Contemporary chronicles note that the Ottomans reduced masses of inhabitants of Greece, Romania and the Balkans to slavery by 1460.

  • 70,000 in Transylvania (1438)
  • 300,000-600,000 from Hungary
  • 10,000 from Mytilene/Mitilini on Lesbos island (1462)

An immense number of slaves flowed from the Crimea, the Balkans and the steppes of West Asia to Islamic markets.

Brian Davies in “Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe” (2007) laments that the “Tartars and other Black Sea peoples had sold millions of Ukrainians, Georgians, Circassians, Greeks, Armenians, Bulgarians, Slavs and Turks.”

Polish historian Bohdan Baranowski assumed that in the 17th century, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (present-day Poland, Ukraine and Belarus) lost an average of 20,000 yearly and as many as one million in all years combined from 1474 to 1694.

According to Ukrainian-Canadian historian Orest Subtelny, from 1450 to 1586, 86 raids were recorded, and from 1600 to 1647 there were 70.

“Although estimates of the number of captives taken in a single raid reached as high as 30,000, the average figure was closer to 3,000,” Subtelny wrote. “In Podilia alone, about one-third of all the villages were devastated or abandoned between 1578 and 1583.”

While sources are incomplete, conservative tabulation of the slave raids against the eastern European population indicate that at least seven million European people — men, women and children — were enslaved or exterminated by Muslims.

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, “It is known that for every slave the Crimean Tatars sold in the market, they killed outright several other people during their raids, and a couple more died on the way to the slave market.”

Habsburg diplomat and the ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire to Muscovy, Sigismund von Herberstein, wrote that “old and infirmed men, who will not fetch much at a sale, are given up to the Tatar youths, either to be stoned, or to be thrown into the sea, or to be killed by any sort of death they might please.”

The raids were a drain of the human and economic resources of eastern Europe. They largely inhabited the “Wild Fields” – the steppe and forest-steppe land that extends from 100 or so miles south of Moscow to the Black Sea, and which now contains most of the Russian and Ukrainian populations. The campaigns also played an important role in the development of the Cossacks as a counter-force.

As described in the “Book to the Great Chart of Muscovy” (1627), the raid routes took place along the Muravsky Trail or Murava Route. The route went north from the Tatar fortress of Or Qapı (Perekop), the gateway of the Crimean peninsula, and proceeded east of the Dnieper to the Russian fortress of Tula, 193 km south of Moscow.

The Tatars sent out two wings of up to 10,000 men each from the main body to sweep the country, taking women, children, horses, sheep and cattle, and those men who chose not to resist. When the wings returned to the main corps, other wings were sent out in the same manner.

Having “harvested” an area, they withdrew by a different route. They did not waste time by attacking fortified towns, and they avoided fighting organized opposition unless they were forced to defend themselves.

To avoid major river crossings, the route followed the high ground between the basins of the Dnieper and Don, making an almost straight line from the Dnieper bend to Tula. It ran mostly through thinly populated tall grass steppe country (“Muravá” is an old Slavic word for prairie or grassland), avoiding forests, marshes and river crossings. Apart from the main route, there were number of branches and bypaths.

Between 1500 and 1550, there were 43 Tatar raids using this trail. In the wake of the Russo-Crimean War (1571), it became increasingly clear that only a defense line south of the main zasechnaya cherta (Great Abatis Border) would put an end to annual incursions.

A chain of 11 forts and obstruction — the “Belgorod Defense Line” — was constructed, including (among other fortified settlements) the towns of Livny (1586), Voronezh (1586), Kursk (1587, rebuilt), Yelets (1592, rebuilt), Stary Oskol (1593), Valuyki (1593) and Belgorod (1596, rebuilt). These cities were founded in response to the white-slave raids.

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20 Comments on Setting the Record Straight: White Europeans Were Captured and Traded as Slaves for Centuries

A further anecdote re the Slavic Slave Trade …

“Year after year, Tatar horsemen rode north out of their Crimean stronghold across the grazing lands of the Ukrainian steppe and, in small bands or large armies, swopped down on Cossack settlements or Russian towns to ravage and plunder. Di dalam 1662 Tatars captured the town of Putivl and carried off all the 20,000 inhabitants into slavery. By the end of the seventeenth century Russian slaves thronged Ottoman slave markets. Russian men were seen chained to oars of galleys in every harbor in the eastern Mediterranean young Russian boys made a welcome gift from the Crimean Khan to the Sultan. So numerous, in fact, were the Russian slaves in the East that it was asked mockingly whether any inhabitants still remained in Russia.”

Dari i“Peter the Great: His Life and World” by Robert K Massie

• The Secret Relationship between Jews and Blacks – Louis Farrakhan (Nation of Islam)

Thank you so much Karen– a much better full copy. I have noted that in some recent videos Louis Farrakhan has been sidestepping somewhat (I hope he can resist being controlled and coerced) but this is priceless work and many of his videos/speeches are worth downloading. I will share some of his best later.

“The story of the slaves in America begins with Christopher Columbus. His voyage to America was not financed by Queen Isabella, but by Luis de Santangelo, who advanced the sum of 17,000 ducats (about 5,000 pounds today equal to 50,000 pounds) to finance the voyage, which began on August 3, 1492.

Columbus [Colon] was accompanied by five ‘maranos’ (Jews who had foresworn their religion and supposedly became Catholics), Luis de Torres, interpreter, Marco, the surgeon, Bemal, the physician, Alonzo de la Calle and Gabriel Sanchez.”

“Who Brought the Slaves to America – Walter White Jr”

That is some good additional material. And, here is some more.

An excellent hard to find video with many vintage advertisements of Jews buying/selling blacks. Why don’t we know about these historical truths? Because the perpetrators are in control of the media!

Terima kasih! Always wanted a copy but AmaZOG stopped offering it under ADL pressure. Now I can have the book and NOI will not make a dime. Win-win!

I am seeing more and more wrongthink sites going dark.

The anti-white world does not care what their own ancestors did.
They seek to eliminate the white race from the face of the earth.

The white European Christian ethnic group put an end to slavery after centuries of battle as you describe in the article and when this group is destroyed (and it will be) hardcore slavery will return again. Most dimwitted and brainwashed people, white or otherwise, don’t seem to understand this.

Its always been free men vs the slavers. No different than Jesus vs the Pharisees and Moneychangers.

I am sick and tired of American whites giving in to the brainwashing of “white privilege,” “white guilt,” and “white fragility.” So much so that I have posted a new post explaining to “guilty” whites why they need to get over it before they get attacked by black supremacists, whose number seems to be growing just because… and the link to this article is featured, along with videos featuring the lecture series called “White Trash” about the history of most whites that came here in the 17th through 20th centuries, especially from England, Scotland, Ireland, Scots-Irish that make up today’s Appalachia where most whites are poor.

Just two very small thoughts.

1. Although indentured servitude in Northern Ireland, under the English aristocracy, is often differentiated from slavery based on overall work conditions, physical abuse and remote freedom conveyed at a future date I would opine that these three factors did not always prove out. Conditions of work varied, physical abuse was often a cherished punishment by the English aristocracy (just think about what they did to their own children in the Victorian era, never mind being Irish) and freedom could become a future dream, where death arrives first on the scene.

If we consider that indentured servitude is a contractual agreement. As with all contractual agreements (think credit cards), terms and conditions could be modified, and often were. Individuals could find themselves being contractually released when they were either too sick or too old to work. With their best years behind them, often in poor health, they could end up poor, destitute, in prison, or simply dead in very short order.

2. A publicly traded prison (prison corporation with registered equities that are tradable on a market) is an interesting “end run” around certain freedoms, and (in some cases) may have a likeness to slavery. Now this is a huge topic, so I will not even try to get more detailed than this suggestion however, one thing that has occurred to me:

How hard would it be to invite people, from CIA wrecked nations, to relocate in America, promise them the world (money, votes, freedom, free stuff and the like), wait a period of time (maybe a decade, so the lull sets in), and then develop a program (not a new idea here) to imprison them in publicly traded, corporate, prisons at a future date?

One last thing popped into my head:

If you buy American (“MADE IN THE USA” on the package), and care about where your goods may be coming from, then you may wish to ask if your purchase is as a result of prison labor, from a publicly traded corporation. In my case, I did so and found out that New Balance sneakers are manufactured through very fair labor practices (as are Gitman shirts). On the other hand, I will never purchase CISCO hardware, as it used to be made in the very institutions that I am referring to.

Thanks for bringing up Indentured Servitude, SC, as I am likely (being Scots-Irish as well as Irish) descended from indentured servants (esp. on my father’s mother’s side), and the notion of the contract called an indent. This and the possibility (as told by a British woman I knew from southwest England) that indenture still might exist in England (she mentioned Cornwall which is the poorest county in England and much of it is a Duchy owned by the royals) got me to make one of my prodigal band characters the son of one indentured. For more on indenture in the US, I posted this on my book site here:
https://omegabooksnet.com/2021/02/02/snippets-of-the-prodigal-band-trilogy-controversial-topics-series-episode-six-the-consequences-of-poverty-and-debt-part-one/

Wow, really neat on the character I will give it a look this afternoon / evening. Terima kasih.

(and yes, I just thought the contract was relative as it could end up in slavery as well however, I knew nothing of Cornwall, so thanks again)

I did enjoy your thread on your website. It was similar to your response here, but extended your thoughts out nicely. In particular I liked this bit:

“And yet, the article states only 40 percent of indentured servants lived to receive this benefit, and, because each landowner ‘master’ was given land for each ‘servant’ brought over, the ‘servants’ who lived out their terms were forced to get land in the western, mountainous parts of Virginia…you know, Appalachia?”

Good reference to the article and very true even today regarding of decedents in Virginia and now West Virginia (all very nice folks, at least the ones I have met).

Some more information on White Slavery and worse.

A half to two thirds of the original Colonists of North America were Slaves.
57% of Children in working class Manchester died before their fifth birthday in 1840.
A relative of mine started work at 4 years and 9 months old as a block printers boy, 12 hour days walk a mile to work , 6 days a week Sunday school one day , only enjoyment playing marbles on the way home.
They were not called Dark Satanic Mills for nothing, children died there and down pits alone in the dark working air pumps.
⁣Ulrich B. Phillips, Life and Labor in the Old South explains that white enslavement was crucial to the development of the Negro slave system. The system set up for the white slaves governed, organized and controlled the system for the black slaves. Black slaves were “late comers fitted into a system already developed.” Pp 25-26. John Pory declared in 1619, “white slaves are our principle wealth.”


Algiers Captured - History

Most of France's actions in Algeria, not least the invasion of Algiers, were propelled by contradictory impulses. In the period between Napoleon's downfall in 1815 and the revolution of 1830, the restored French monarchy was in crisis, and the dey was weak politically, economically, and militarily. The French monarch sought to reverse his domestic unpopularity. As a result of what the French considered an insult to the French consul in Algiers by the dey in 1827, France blockaded Algiers for three years. France used the failure of the blockade as a reason for a military expedition against Algiers in 1830.

Invasion of Algiers

Using Napoleon's 1808 contingency plan for the invasion of Algeria, 34,000 French soldiers landed twenty-seven kilometers west of Algiers, at Sidi Ferruch, on June 12, 1830. To face the French, the dey sent 7,000 janissaries, 19,000 troops from the beys of Constantine and Oran, and about 17,000 Kabyles. The French established a strong beachhead and pushed toward Algiers, thanks in part to superior artillery and better organization. Algiers was captured after a three-week campaign, and Hussein Dey fled into exile. French troops raped, looted (taking 50 million francs from the treasury in the Casbah), desecrated mosques, and destroyed cemeteries. It was an inauspicious beginning to France's self-described "civilizing mission," whose character on the whole was cynical, arrogant, and cruel.

Hardly had the news of the capture of Algiers reached Paris than Charles X was deposed, and his cousin Louis Philippe, the "citizen king," was named to preside over a constitutional monarchy. The new government, composed of liberal opponents of the Algiers expedition, was reluctant to pursue the conquest ordered by the old regime, but withdrawing from Algeria proved more difficult than conquering it. A parliamentary commission that examined the Algerian situation concluded that although French policy, behavior, and organization were failures, the occupation should continue for the sake of national prestige. In 1834 France annexed the occupied areas, which had an estimated Muslim population of about 3 million, as a colony. Colonial administration in the occupied areas--the so-called r gime du sabre (government of the sword)--was placed under a governor general, a high-ranking army officer invested with civil and military jurisdiction, who was responsible to the minister of war.


Tonton videonya: TANGAN DINGIN SOEKARNO SELUNDUPKAN SENAPAN DI KAPAL SELAM DEMI ALJAZAIR