George Hardwick

George Hardwick

George Hardwick lahir di Saltburn pada 2 Februari 1920. Ia bermain sebagai bek kiri untuk South Bank. Manajer Arsenal, George Allison, melihatnya bermain tetapi mengatakan kepadanya: "Anda memiliki banyak keterampilan dan kekuatan yang luar biasa, tetapi saya pikir Anda terlalu besar di belakang untuk membuat nilai sebagai pesepakbola."

Terlepas dari komentar ini, dia menandatangani kontrak dengan Middlesbrough pada tahun 1936. Dia menerima £3 10 per minggu, dengan bonus £2 untuk bermain dalam kemenangan tim utama. Orang lain di klub pada saat itu termasuk Wilf Mannion, George Camsell, Dave Cumming, Benny Yorston, Micky Fenton, Ralph Birkett dan Harold Shepherdson.

Hardwick melakukan debutnya pada musim 1937-38. Pada menit pertama pertandingan, Hardwick, full-back termuda di divisi pertama, berhasil mencetak gol bunuh diri dengan tendangan pertamanya di tim utama. Meskipun awal yang buruk ini ia mempertahankan tempatnya di tim sampai karirnya terganggu oleh Perang Dunia Kedua.

Hardwick memenangkan pertandingan internasional pertamanya untuk Inggris melawan Irlandia Utara pada 28 September 1946. Franklin mempertahankan tempatnya dan musim itu bermain melawan Republik Irlandia (1-0), Wales (3-0), Belanda (8-2) , Skotlandia (1-1), Prancis (3-0), Swiss (0-1) dan Portugal (10-0). Tim Inggris musim itu termasuk pemain seperti Raich Carter, Tommy Lawton, Wilf Mannion, Harry Johnston, Neil Franklin, Laurie Scott, Tom Finney, Stanley Matthews, Stan Mortensen, Billy Wright dan Frank Swift.

Hardwick mempertahankan tempatnya di tim Inggris dan pada musim 1947-48 ia bermain melawan Belgia (5-2), Wales (3-0), Irlandia Utara (2-2), Swedia (4-2) dan Skotlandia (2 -0). Namun, cedera lutut serius mengakhiri karir internasionalnya. Namun, Hardwick berhasil memulihkan tempatnya di tim Middlesbrough.

Pada tahun 1950 Hardwick bergabung dengan Oldham Athletic sebagai pemain-manajer. Dia telah mencetak 5 gol dalam 143 pertandingan untuk Middlesbrough. Pada musim pertamanya klub selesai 15 di Divisi Ketiga. Oldham dipromosikan ke Divisi II setelah memenangkan gelar liga di musim 1952-53. Namun, musim berikutnya Oldham selesai di tempat ke-22 dan terdegradasi. Hardwick pensiun pada tahun 1955 setelah mencetak 14 gol dalam 190 pertandingan untuk Oldham.

Hardwick menjadi manajer PSV Eindhoven pada tahun 1957. Kemudian ia ditugaskan di tim nasional sepak bola Belanda. Dia juga melatih Middlesbrough dan mengelola Sunderland dan Gateshead.

Mike McCullagh menjadi ketua Middlesbrough pada tahun 1982. Dia kemudian mengklaim bahwa keputusan pertamanya adalah memberikan kesaksian kepada Hardwick dan Wilf Mannion. "Saya tahu banyak permintaan untuk itu dan tidak pernah bisa mengerti mengapa itu bukan yang pertama dalam daftar pertandingan yang akan diadakan. Wilf dan George adalah dua pemain paling terkenal yang pernah dilihat Middlesbrough dan dua yang paling dicintai. pemain."

Pada 17 Mei 1983, Bobby Robson membawa England XI untuk bermain melawan Middlesbrough. Kerumunan 13.710, 3.000 lebih dari rata-rata gerbang rumah musim itu, melihat pertandingan. Wakil ketua komite kesaksian Terry Jackson mengatakan: "Ketika Wilf dan George akhirnya keluar sebelum pertandingan, air mata saya mengalir di pipi. Itu adalah suguhan terbesar dalam hidup saya dan setiap anggota komite merasakan hal yang sama."

George Hardwick meninggal pada 19 April 2004.

Saya merasa bahwa reputasi George Hardwick merosot lebih cepat daripada yang pantas dia dapatkan setelah pertandingan Inggris versus Skotlandia di Hampden Park pada April 1948. Hingga saat itu dia telah menjadi pilihan otomatis untuk negaranya, dan juga kapten, tetapi cedera kemudian membuatnya kehilangan nyawanya. tempat di tur Asosiasi Sepak Bola, dan dia tidak bisa kembali ke kelas internasional.

George adalah orang yang hebat, dengan bakat senang untuk dapat memberi saran kepada seorang pemain, bahkan untuk mengkritik, tanpa meninggalkan perasaan terluka. Mungkin tekelnya tidak selalu mematikan seperti satu atau dua bek sayap lainnya pada masanya, tetapi secara keseluruhan dia adalah, dan merupakan, pesepakbola kelas satu. Baik di dalam maupun di luar lapangan, dia telah menjadi kredit untuk olahraga ini.


Montgomery County Kentucky

Ini dari kliping koran yang muncul di kolom silsilah di Mt. Sterling Advocate, yang ditulis oleh Harry W. Mills. Kolom silsilah Harry W. Mills awalnya muncul di Mt. Sterling Advocate pada tahun 1940-an dan 1950-an.

Catatan pertama yang tersedia yang mencantumkan keluarga di Gunung Sterling, Ky., termasuk dalam sensus county Montgomery tahun 1810. (Sensus 1800 Kentucky dihancurkan ketika Inggris membakar Capitol di Washington selama Perang 1812). Buku tahun 1810 yang berisi penghitungan wilayah Montgomery berbunyi: "Jadwal . Orang-orang dalam Divisi yang Diberikan untuk Hardage Smith .. Dan daftar Gunung Sterling dimulai: "Gunung Sterling, 30 Agustus 1810."

Keluarga di Gunung Sterling, 1810

Pada tahun 1810 ada 40 keluarga yang tinggal di Gunung Sterling, dan ini adalah "kepala keluarga".

Total populasi Gunung Sterling, 1810: Putih: Laki-laki, 89 perempuan, 154 total 243 berwarna, 50 atau lebih (angka-angka yang tidak terbaca dalam banyak kasus)

Berikut ini adalah sketsa silsilah singkat dari beberapa keluarga 1810:

FERGUSON -- William Ferguson, kepala keluarga yang terdiri dari enam laki-laki dan satu perempuan. William Ferguson lahir di Virginia pada tahun 1787. Ia menikah dengan Susanna Smith, lahir 1789, putri Enoch Smith (1750-1825), dan anak-anak mereka adalah sebagai berikut: (1) Franklin Ferguson, lahir 1827 (2) George Ferguson, lahir 1830 (3) Christopher Ferguson, lahir 1833 (4) Ellen Ferguson, lahir 1835. Enoch Smith, dalam wasiatnya, mengesahkan May Court, 1825, bernama putri Susanna Ferguson, dan Frances Ferguson. William Ferguson adalah putra dari Thomas dan Priscilla (Ford) Ferguson. Dia memiliki saudara laki-laki, Josiah Ferguson, dan saudara perempuan Susanna Ferguson, yang menikah dengan Israel Wright. (Catatan ditambahkan oleh Bettie Cline McCaleb - Suami Priscilla Ford adalah Josiah Ferguson. Ini dinyatakan dalam wasiat ayahnya, Thomas Ford. Juga ketika Josiah Ferguson meninggal, penyelesaian tanah miliknya memanggilnya Josiah. Dia juga memiliki salinan surat yang ditulis oleh paman buyutnya Dr. Josiah Ferguson Jones di mana dia berbicara tentang kakek-neneknya sebagai Josiah dan Priscilla Ferguson. Mungkin Josiah bernama Thomas Josiah tetapi dia belum menemukan apa pun untuk membuktikannya. Di Fairfax Co. Va. John Ferguson menyebutkan putra John, Joshua dan Yosia tetapi tidak ada Thomas.)

WILLIAMS -- Samuel Williams adalah kepala keluarga yang terdiri dari lima laki-laki dan tiga perempuan. Ada 18 keluarga lain bernama Williams yang terdaftar dalam sensus 1810 di wilayah Montgomery. Tidak ada informasi lebih lanjut yang tersedia tentang Samuel Williams.

HUTANG -- Keluarga Owings menetap lebih awal di wilayah Montgomery dan Bath tetapi tidak ada catatan lebih lanjut tentang Richard Owings yang tersedia saat ini.

FERGUSON -- William Ferguson (1786 - 1869), putra Josiah dan Frances (Smith) Ferguson menikah dengan Susanna Smith (1789 - 1878). Pada tahun 1810, William Ferguson menjadi kepala keluarga yang terdiri dari 6 laki-laki dan 1 perempuan.

CHILES -- William Chiles adalah seorang insinyur sipil. Dia memiliki tanah yang cukup besar, menikah tiga kali, dan membesarkan keluarga besar anak-anak. Putranya, Co. Walter Chiles, lahir di Montgomery county meninggal di Frankfort, Ky. Lulusan Transylvania College menjadi pengacara terkemuka menikah (1) Eliza Price tidak memiliki anak yang menikah (2) Caroline Stith, dan memiliki keturunan: Mary A., Landon C.

Banyak yang sekarang hidup ingat terutama untuk minatnya yang besar dalam urusan sekolah umum, Landon T. Chiles selama bertahun-tahun seorang pedagang Gunung Sterling ia menikahi Mary Mitchell, dan anak-anak mereka adalah Carrie, menikah dengan Dr. Howard Van Antwerp Richard A., pengacara Gunung Sterling Annie, menikah dengan LT Young.

peti -- Henry Cofer, "keluarga" dari satu orang (kelompok usia 26 hingga 45 tahun). Oleh karena itu kami menganggap dia bujangan atau setidaknya tanpa keluarga pada waktu itu. Ada pundi-pundi di daerah Montgomery dan Bath awal.

DURRET -- Paul Durrett mungkin adalah seorang bujangan pada tahun 1810, karena ia terdaftar dalam buku sensus sebagai "kepala keluarga" dari satu orang (laki-laki, kelompok usia 26 sampai 45 tahun). Di antara pernikahan yang dilakukan oleh Pendeta John "Raccoon" Smith di daerah Montgomery adalah pernikahan Paul Durrett dan Gabriella L. Banks, pada tanggal 1 Juni 1820. Hon. Wallace Gruelle, dalam pidato bersejarahnya di Gunung Sterling, 1872, menceritakan anekdot tentang Paul Durrett, yang, katanya, "menyimpan luka . adalah pria yang periang, bernada tinggi dan menyukai leluconnya."

HENLEY -- Osburn Henley (Hensley?) adalah kepala keluarga besar (11 laki-laki dan 3 perempuan) tetapi tidak ada catatan lebih lanjut mengenai pria ini.

JUTAAN - Dr John Augustus Mills (lahir di Maryland ca. 1780 meninggal di Fulton, Callaway county, Missouri), menetap di Montgomery county pada hari perintis, dan merupakan salah satu dari tiga dokter pertama di Mt Sterling. Setelah itu dia pindah ke Winchester, Clark county, Kentucky, di mana dia menjadi terkenal. Kami telah diberitahu bahwa lukisan cat minyak dari dokter terkenal tergantung di gedung pengadilan daerah Clark. Istri Dr Mill bernama Lucy (nama gadis tidak diketahui), penduduk asli Virginia keluarga mereka pada tahun 1810 termasuk empat anak, tetapi nama-nama hanya dua telah datang kepada kami: (I) John Mills, lahir di Kentucky ca. 1929 tidak ada catatan lebih lanjut. (II) Emily Mills, menikah dengan Irvine Hockaday, dan pindah ke Fulton, Mo., pada masa-masa awal. Mereka memiliki delapan anak anak tertua, Lucy Hockaday, menikah dengan Solomom Van Meter. Irvine Hockaday adalah pegawai pertama di daerah Callaway, Missouri. Seorang keturunan Dr. Mills memberi tahu kita bahwa ". ketika Dr. Mills dan istrinya menjadi tua, nenek kami, Emily Hockaday, pergi ke Winchester dan membawa mereka kembali ke Fulton, Mo. Sebuah kamar dibangun khusus untuk mereka, dan di sana mereka hidup sampai kematian mereka. Mereka dimakamkan di tanah keluarga di Fulton."

BIGGS -- Andrew Biggs adalah kepala keluarga besar pada tahun 1810 - 15 laki-laki dan 4 perempuan, total 19 orang. Namun, karena ia adalah seorang penjaga hotel, orang-orang yang tercantum dalam daftar tersebut dianggap termasuk tamu di hotelnya serta anggota kelompok keluarga dekatnya. Dalam pidato bersejarahnya yang disampaikan di Gunung Sterling, 4 Juli 1872, Hakim Wallace Gruelle menyatakan: "Kedai pertama di tempat itu (Gunung Sterling) didirikan di sudut yang sekarang ditempati oleh toko barang kering Johnson & Thompson. Joseph Simpson adalah pembangun dan boniface (sic). Andrew Biggs kemudian membuka kedai di mana Kentucky Hotel sekarang berdiri." Andrew Biggs mungkin adalah salah satu pemukim awal daerah Montgomery, karena namanya muncul di daftar pajak tahun 1797.

MERCKLEY -- Frederick Merekley terdaftar pada tahun 1810 sebagai kepala keluarga dengan 6 laki-laki dan 1 perempuan. Dia tidak terdaftar dalam sensus Gunung Sterling tahun 1820. Tidak ada catatan lebih lanjut.

PERNAH -- Richmond Everitt, kepala keluarga dengan 6 orang pada tahun 1810, tidak diragukan lagi berasal dari keluarga yang sama dengan Samuel D. Everitt yang terdaftar di Mt. Sterling., 1820. "Sketsa Sejarah" Reid: ". Di sebuah rumah yang bersebelahan dengan barat dari kedai Simpson, Samuel dan Peter Everitt memulai karir mereka yang sukses sebagai pedagang."

pengantin pria -- Moses Grooms, kepala keluarga dengan 6 orang pada tahun 1810, juga terdaftar dalam sensus tahun 1820 di Gunung Sterling. Tidak ada catatan lebih lanjut yang tersedia.

KELSOE -- Hugh Kelso datang ke Kentucky dari Bath county, Virginia saudaranya, John Kelsoe, juga menetap di Montgomery county, Kentucky. Mereka adalah putra James dan Elizabeth (Sitlington) Kelso dari Bath county, Virginia, yang juga memiliki putri, Mary (Polly) Kelso dan Elizabeth (Betsy) Kelso. Betsy Kelso adalah istri Thomas Hughart dari Bath county, Virginia, yang bermigrasi ke Kentucky, menetap di Bath county, Kentucky.. (Keluarga Kelso dan Hughart adalah di antara sejumlah keluarga awal yang dipindahkan dari Bath county, di Virginia, dan menetap di county dengan nama yang sama di Kentucky Hanya ada dua county di seluruh negeri yang bernama Bath -- satu di Virginia dan satu di Kentucky.

MCILVAIN -- Keluarga Archibald McIlvain termasuk 4 laki-laki, semua orang dewasa yang berdampingan adalah James McIlvain, dengan keluarga 2 laki-laki dan 3 perempuan. Anggota keluarga McIlvain menikah dengan Banks, McBee (Mockbee) dan keluarga daerah awal Montgomery lainnya.

FEAMSTER -- Samuel Feamster (Feimster) dari Gunung Sterling, 1810, adalah keturunan dari keluarga Scotch yang menetap lebih awal di bagian Bath-Highland county, Virginia.

HODGES -- Keluarga William Hodges, Gunung Sterling, 1810, termasuk dua orang dewasa dan tiga anak. Tidak ada catatan yang tersedia tentang nama istri atau anak-anaknya. Akuntansi auditor "town lotts" di Gunung Sterling, 1797, mencantumkan William Hoges (Hodges) sebagai pemilik "lott". Sketsa sejarah Gruelle tentang wilayah Montgomery menyatakan: "Seorang pria bernama Hodge mendirikan pabrik gandum pertama di bagian belakang properti yang bersebelahan dengan gereja Metodis, yang sekarang dimiliki oleh Dr. Ashby. Dia menjalankannya dengan tenaga kuda." Orang yang mendirikan pabrik gandum pertama mungkin adalah William Hodges dari Mt. Sterling namun, ada orang lain dari nama yang tinggal di daerah Montgomery, atau memiliki properti di sana, karena buku auditor tahun 1797 mencantumkan John Hodges, Andrew Hodge, juga sebagai William Hodges.

TOMSON -- Hugh D. Thomson, kepala keluarga yang terdiri dari dua orang dewasa, mungkin berasal dari keluarga yang sama dengan David Anderson Thompson, Jr., yang datang dari Virginia ke Kentucky pada masa-masa awal dan menetap di dekat Gunung Sterling.

RINGO -- Henry Ringgold (Ringo), yang tinggal di Gunung Sterling pada bulan Agustus 1810, tidak diragukan lagi adalah keluarga Henry Ringo (1724-1802), yang bersama tujuh putra dan putrinya datang dari New Jersey melalui Virginia ke Montgomery county, Kentucky, pada hari-hari awal.

KAKU -- Daniel Stiff, tinggal di Gunung Sterling, 1810, dengan keluarga dua orang dewasa dan Joseph Stiff, kepala keluarga dari dua orang dewasa dan lima anak, yang tinggal di daerah Montgomery, Kentucky, 1810, mungkin adalah kerabat dekat. Namun, tidak ada informasi yang tersedia mengenai asal mereka, meskipun ada keluarga dengan nama itu di Middlesex county, Virginia, pada tahun 1710. Keluarga itu berasal dari Inggris Lama, di mana ia duduk di Wiltshire pada awal abad ke-13. Nama belakang Stiff berasal dari julukan "The Stiff," yang berarti kaku dalam fitur atau keras kepala. Sebuah otoritas tentang asal usul nama keluarga menyatakan bahwa "vokal itu dulunya panjang" yaitu, diucapkan sebagai Stife, seperti dalam kata Strife.

CHEATHAM -- Pada tahun 1810, David Cheatham, James Cheatham, dan John Cheatham tinggal di county, dan Leonard Cheatham di kota Mt. Sterling. Pencacahan federal menunjukkan Leonard Cheatham kepala keluarga dari 2 orang dewasa dan 6 anak-anak. (Salah satu perwira milisi county di county Montgomery, yang dibentuk oleh gubernur pada tahun 1798, adalah Ensign Lewis Cheatham.)

FORBUSH -- Pada tahun 1776, James Forbush adalah salah satu pemukim pertama di Stasiun Bryant (di daerah Fayette) ia kemudian pindah ke daerah Broubon. Gracy Forbush, kepala keluarga yang tinggal di Gunung Sterling, 1810, terdiri dari 1 orang dewasa (perempuan) dan dua anak, mungkin adalah janda dari keturunan James Forbush ini, yang datang ke wilayah Montgomery sebelum tahun 1810.

SIMPSON -- Joseph Simpson adalah kepala keluarga yang terdiri dari 2 orang dewasa dan 11 anak-anak dalam pencacahan Gunung Sterling tahun 1810. (Salah satu perwira resimen milisi kabupaten Montgomery, yang dibentuk oleh gubernur pada tahun 1798 adalah Letnan Joseph Simpson. Ini tidak diragukan lagi adalah Joseph Simpson yang disebutkan oleh Reid: "Kedai pertama (di Gunung Sterling) dibangun di atas sudut sekarang ditempati oleh toko barang kering Wells dan Thompson. Itu adalah bangunan kayu yang dipahat, dengan teras besar yang kuno sepanjang keseluruhannya. Joseph Simpson adalah pembangun dan pemiliknya. ).

SPURGEON (Spurgin) -- Di antara nama-nama "pengunjung dan pencari lokasi" yang disebutkan oleh Reid dalam menceritakan sejarah perintis wilayah Montgomery adalah Samuel Spurgeon (1779), yang "menetap di dekat Gunung Sterling bersama keluarganya pada tahun 1792". Samuel Spurgeon tinggal di Gunung Sterling pada tahun 1810, kepala keluarga dari 2 orang dewasa dan 5 anak-anak.

VIRT (Vert) -- Jacob Virt adalah pemukim awal Kentucky, namanya muncul dalam catatan daerah Bourbon pada awal 1790. Dia kemudian dipindahkan ke daerah Montgomery, di mana dia meninggal dengan wasiatnya, disahkan di pengadilan Mei, 1826, nama istri , Keziah Virt, dan anak-anak berikut: (1) Adam Virt (2) Sibber Virt (menikah - Pleak) (3) Polly Virt (menikah - Pleak) (4) Betsy Virt (menikah - Wilson) (5) Jacob Virt ( 6) Rebecca Virt (menikah - Sutton) (7) Sally Virt (8) Nathaniel Virt (9) John Virt (10) Keziah Virt (11) Alasan Virt (12) William Virt (13) Daniel Virt.

INGRAM (Ingrim) -- Thomas Ingrim atau Ingram tinggal di daerah Montgomery pada tahun 1810, ketika dia menjadi kepala keluarga dengan 4 orang. Satu properti milik Uriah Ingrim di daerah Montgomery, 1797, dan mungkin dari garis keluarga yang sama. Keluarga ini muncul dalam catatan selanjutnya dari kabupaten Bath dan Morgan, Kentucky, dan mungkin telah tinggal di bagian awal Montgomery yang kemudian terputus untuk membentuk Bath dan Morgan.

KINCAID (Kinkaid) - Pada saat perang Kolonial, keluarga ini cukup banyak di Virginia barat daya (Augusta, dan kabupaten terputus darinya, termasuk Greenbrier, Bath, dll). Sejarah pelopor Kentucky mencatat banyak nama. David Kincaid dan John Kincaid adalah pemilik properti awal di daerah Montgomery (daftar pajak 1797). Sensus 1810 dari county ini mencantumkan sejumlah keluarga bernama Kincaid, termasuk: Archibald Kincaid, John Kincaid, Andrew Kincaid, Andrew Kincaid, Jr., Thomas Kincaid, George Kincaid dan David Kincaid. Mereka semua tampaknya telah tinggal di daerah yang menjadi Bath county, 1811. Pernikahan yang dilakukan oleh Pendeta Joseph Price Howe, pendeta pertama dari gereja Springfield Presbyterian, Bath County, Kentucky, termasuk pernikahan: Thomas Kincaid dan Mary Bracken, pada 13 Maret, 1800 John Caldwell dan Mary Kincaid pada 13 Maret 1800, dan James Johnston dan Ann Kincaid pada 10 September 1810.

MAGOWAN -- James S. Magowan, tercatat sebagai kepala keluarga dengan 2 orang dewasa dan 5 anak-anak. James Strode Magowan lahir di Virginia, 1774, putra James Magowan dari Berleley county, Virginia yang terletak di dekat Gunung Sterling. Dia adalah pemilik tanah yang luas. Hakim Gruelle dalam sketsa sejarahnya tentang Gunung Sterling, menyatakan bahwa "pada tahun 1809 James Magowan memulai sebuah tanyard di tempat di mana depot kereta api sedang didirikan." James S. Magowan menjabat sebagai Perwakilan dari Montgomery county, dengan William Hodges, 1808. James Strode Magowan meninggal sekitar 1852. Putranya, James P. Magowan (lahir 1801 meninggal 1858), menikah, 1827, Eliza Jane Banks (Dia lahir di apa yang sekarang Bath county, 16 Mei 1806 meninggal 1871, putri Cuthbert dan Elizabeth MeIlvaine Banks Anak-anak: (1) Anna Eliza (2) James Asa (3) John Trabue (4) William Cuthbert. John Trabue Magowan, putra James T. dan Eliza (Banks) Magowan, lahir 1834 meninggal 1909 ia lahir, tinggal dan meninggal di daerah Montgomery. Pada tahun 1872, ia menikah dengan Emily G. Gatewood. Anak-anak: (1) James R. (2) Mary .

HEIGHTON -- Pencacahan federal tahun 1810, menunjukkan Josiah Heighton terdaftar dengan satu laki-laki dewasa, kelompok usia 45 tahun ditambah dalam keluarga. Oleh karena itu, diduga bahwa dia adalah seorang lelaki tua tanpa keluarga, hidup sendiri. Tidak ada informasi lain yang tersedia. (Ada John Heaton, nama yang mirip dalam Daftar Pajak tahun 1797 di Montgomery County.)

McFERRIN -- John McFerrin adalah kepala keluarga dengan 2 orang dewasa dan 5 anak, tinggal di Gunung Sterling, 1810. Saat ini tidak ada informasi yang tersedia mengenai nama istri dan anak-anak John McFerrin namun di antara pernikahan yang dilakukan oleh Pendeta John Smith, di daerah Montgomery adalah sebagai berikut: Jonathan McFerrin dan Rebecca Harper, 13 Oktober 1818 Dillingham Ward dan Susan McFerrin, 26 November 1818 dan Aaron McFerrin dan Elizabeth Montgomery, 13 April 1830. Keluarga McFerrin adalah salah satu keluarga lama Virginia, dan anggota keluarga datang dari York county, Virginia, ke Lincoln county Kentucky, pada hari-hari awal perintis. John McFerrin dari Gunung Sterling mungkin berasal dari keluarga yang sama.

BULU -- Andrew Featherchy adalah kepala keluarga yang terdiri dari 2 orang dewasa dan 8 anak-anak, tinggal di Gunung Sterling 1810. (tidak ada informasi lebih lanjut)

WHITLEDGE - Robert Whitledge adalah anggota rombongan penjelajah pertama pada musim semi 1775, tetapi ternyata dia tidak menetap di daerah Montgomery. Nama Robert Whitledge ditemukan dalam petisi ke Majelis Virginia oleh "penghuni bermacam-macam County of Bourbon," tertanggal 27 Oktober 1788. Para pembuat petisi digambarkan sebagai "tinggal di dekat Gedung Pengadilan dan di Licking Creek." Oleh karena itu, kami menyimpulkan bahwa Robert Whitledge terletak di dekat kota Hopewell (sekarang Paris, kabupaten Bourbon). Di daerah Bourbon awal juga ada Thomas Whitledge dan John Whitledge, saudara laki-laki dan Robert Whitledge kemungkinan berasal dari keluarga yang sama.

JUDY - John Judy dan yang lainnya "keluar dari Virginia pada tahun 1779 dan membentuk koloni kecil orang kulit putih yang pertama kali menetap di wilayah Montgomery." Keluarga Judy (Tshudi) datang dari Swiss ke Amerika pada hari-hari awal menetap pertama di Pennsylvania kemudian, anggota dipindahkan ke Virginia dan Kentucky.

THOMAS - Moses Thomas disebut sebagai anggota koloni kecil yang "pertama menetap di wilayah Montgomery". Salah satu Benjamin Thomas disebutkan dalam catatan awal daerah Montgomery: Pada 7 November 1803, Weathers Smith dari daerah Bourbon memberikan kuasa kepada Benjamin Thomas dari Montgomery, "untuk membuat pembagian tanah yang dipegang oleh saya dan saudara laki-laki saya George Smith". Benjamin Thomas meninggal "sekitar Februari, 1813, meninggalkan akan merancang tanah untuk Benjamin Franklin Thomas dan Washington Thomas, di bawah umur, yang James French adalah wali.

SADE - William Sade, salah satu dari mereka yang "keluar dari Virginia pada tahun 1779", mungkin tidak menemukan catatan lain di daerah Montgomery di tempat lain.

PUTIH - Benjamin White disebut di antara "pengunjung dan pencari lokasi" awal. Mungkin dia adalah "pengunjung" daripada "pencari" karena tidak ada informasi lebih lanjut yang ditemukan tentang dia. Pemukim awal wilayah Montgomery adalah Aquilla White (catatan tulisan tangan: Prajurit A. W. Rev.), yang datang ke Kentucky pada tahun 1779, dan berlokasi pertama di Boonesborough kemudian dipindahkan ke wilayah Montgomery. Dia berada di Revolusi Amerika di mana dia menjabat sebagai Kapten di Garis Pennsylvania. Dia ada dalam daftar Pensiun tahun 1835, penduduk wilayah Montgomery dengan usia 89 tahun.

ANDERSON - Nicholas Anderson adalah salah satu "pengunjung dan pencari lokasi" awal di wilayah Montgomery. Kehendak noncupation dari salah satu Nicholas Anderson dibuktikan dengan sumpah David Bradshaw di Pengadilan Desember, 1823, daerah Montgomery. Istrinya, Rachel, dan anak-anak disebutkan (tetapi nama anak-anak tidak disebutkan.) Ada cukup banyak pria bernama Anderson dalam catatan awal daerah Montgomery, yang mungkin keturunan atau dari cabang yang sama dengan Nicholas Anderson, tetapi cukup data tidak tersedia untuk mengidentifikasi orang-orang ini dan menyusun sketsa silsilah.

POAGE - Salah satu "pengunjung dan pencari" awal lainnya adalah James Poage. Pada 17 Desember 1796, Gubernur James Garrard mengeluarkan komisi untuk Hakim Pengadilan Sesi Perempat pertama untuk County Montgomery yang baru didirikan, salah satu Hakim bernama James Poage. Pada awal tahun 1798, Gubernur memberhentikan resimen Milisi untuk County Montgomery yang baru. Dia menunjuk Letnan Kolonel dan Komandan, James Poage. Daftar Pajak Montgomery County, 1797, menunjukkan bahwa James Poage adalah pemilik 1106 hektar tanah. Tidak ada catatan silsilah yang ditemukan.

SPURGIN - Samuel Spurgin, di antara pengunjung awal dan pencari lokasi tidak ada catatan lebih lanjut. (Catatan tertulis: tagihan penjualan - perkebunan - 1838)

TURLEY - James Turley datang dari daerah Culpeper, Virginia ke dekat Gunung Sterling, Kentucky, sebelum daerah Montgomery didirikan. Daftar pajak pertama dari county baru, 1797, menunjukkan nama James Turley dan Loenard Turley. Sensus A.S. tahun 1810 mencantumkan nama Leonard Turley sebagai kepala keluarga yang terdiri dari 5 laki-laki dan 3 perempuan. Namun, tidak ada catatan tentang James Turley saat ini, oleh karena itu diduga dia sudah meninggal atau pindah ke tempat lain. (Ada satu James Turley yang lahir sekitar tahun 1762, seorang prajurit Revolusioner yang tinggal di daerah Sangamon, Illinois, pada tahun 1835, ketika ia terdaftar sebagai pensiunan, usia yang diberikan adalah 72 tahun). Turley lain yang ditemukan di awal catatan wilayah Montgomery tidak diragukan lagi adalah keturunan para perintis, namun, kami memiliki catatan pasti tentang hanya satu anak James Turley, Justice of the Peace. Dia adalah Thomas J. Turley, lahir di daerah Montgomery, yang pada tahun 1830 dipindahkan ke daerah Gallatin, Kentucky. Ia menikah dengan Artie Lillard, putri Pendeta David Lillard, seorang pendeta Baptis awal di Kentucky. Leonard Turley tampaknya telah tinggal di bagian Montgomery yang kemudian menjadi daerah Bath.

ROBINSON - Tampaknya ada lebih dari satu cabang keluarga Robinson di masa perintis wilayah Montgomery. Pada tahap penyelidikan kami saat ini, tidak mungkin untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengatur catatan yang tersedia dari nama-nama di daerah Montgomery awal.

HUGHES - David Hughes, salah satu Hakim Perdamaian Montgomery pertama, adalah pemilik tanah besar di county baru, sebagaimana dibuktikan oleh daftar pajak tahun 1797. James Hughes juga merupakan pemilik tanah awal. Seorang anggota piagam gereja Presbyterian Springfield tua, Montgomery (kemudian Bath) county adalah John Hughes. (Ditulis di margin: John Hughes M. Polly Pattterson - 9 November 1809)

ROSENBOROUGH - William Rosenborough, Justice of the Peace, Montgomery county, 1797, mungkin telah pindah ke tempat lain atau mungkin dia tinggal di bagian county yang segera terputus dari county Montgomery. Tidak ada catatan.

KERAS - John Hardwick (atau Hardwicke), Sr., Justice of the Peace, Montgomery county, Kentucky, lahir di Virginia, sekitar tahun 1714 ia dipindahkan dari Bedford county, Virginia ke Kentucky segera setelah Revolusi Amerika, dan namanya ada di antara catatan dari Fayette county, Kentucky, pada tahun 1790. Daftar pajak 1797, Montgomery county, menunjukkan nama John Hardwick, Senr. John Hardwick, Junr. George Hardwick, Sr., menikah dengan seorang Miss Venable ke-2, Dorcas Bush dari Virginia.

COLVIN - Gubernur James Gerrard pada tanggal 17 Desember 1796, mengeluarkan komisi untuk orang-orang yang ditunjuk sebagai Hakim Perdamaian untuk daerah baru Montgomery (yang didirikan oleh Undang-Undang Legislatif Kentucky disetujui 14 Desember 1796, berlaku 1 Maret 1797 ). Di antara mereka yang disebut sebagai Hakim Perdamaian adalah satu Joseph Colvin.

Joseph Colvin ini mungkin tinggal di bagian wilayah Montgomery yang kemudian dipisahkan untuk membentuk wilayah lain, atau ia pindah ke tempat lain. (Ada seorang Joseph Colvin yang menetap di daerah Lincoln, Kentucky, lebih awal). Selama beberapa tahun, tampaknya ada upaya yang cukup besar oleh keturunan untuk melengkapi sejarah keluarga Colvin dan sejumlah pertanyaan telah muncul dalam publikasi dan diajukan dari berbagai tempat, mencari data tentang pemukim awal nama Colvin di Virginia dan Kentucky. Satu pertanyaan yang dicetak dalam sebuah makalah sejarah meminta informasi tentang salah satu Joseph Colvin, dikatakan terkait dengan keluarga Anderson, Trimble Allen yang berasal dari Augusta county, Virginia, ke Kentucky pada masa perintis dan menetap di Kentucky, termasuk Fayette county.

Dengan harapan dapat sedikit membantu siapa pun yang mencari informasi tentang sejarah awal keluarga Colvin, catatan berikut, yang dikumpulkan oleh penulis selama beberapa lusin tahun diberikan:

Keluarga Colvin dikatakan telah datang dari Inggris ke Amerika sekitar tahun 1744. Tradisi keluarga ini tampaknya cocok dengan item berikut, dari Foote's History of Virginia: Sekitar tahun 1735, William Hoge pindah dari Pennsylvania dan menetap di Opeckon, tiga km sebelah selatan dari Winchester, Virginia.. Opeckon Meeting House berdiri di atas sebidang tanah ini. Keluarga Vance, Allen, Colvin, White. dan yang lainnya bergabung dengannya dan membentuk Jemaat Opeckon, yang tertua di barat Blue Ridge. (Keluarga Vance adalah keluarga awal dari kepercayaan Presbiterian di Frederick County, Virginia).

Dalam History of Winchester, Virginia karya Frederick Morton, dalam penulis [sic], ada salinan dokumen kuno tentang peletakan kavling untuk kota Winchester. Di antara nama-nama yang disebutkan adalah Marquis Calmes, Andrew Campbell, Margan Morgan, John White, dan David Vance - semua nama diwakili di antara keluarga Kentucky awal. Tanggalnya 21 Maret 1744 (Kalender Gaya Baru).

Dari kursus lain, kita mengetahui bahwa Andrew Vance, yang datang dari Irlandia ke Amerika sekitar tahun 1700, dan menetap di Opeckon Creek, wilayah Frederick, Virginia, pada tahun 1735, menikah dengan Elizabeth Colvin.

Jauh sebelum Perang Revolusi, anggota keluarga Colvin telah menetap di Culpepper county, Virginia.

Jospeh Colvin, putra Charles Colvin, lahir di Culpepper county, Virginia, pada tahun 1778, dan datang bersama orang tuanya ke Kentucky. Ia menikah dengan Nancy Turner, putri Stephen dan Mary Turner. Putra mereka, Armistead Colvin, lahir di dekat Lancaster, Ky., 23 April 1807, dan meninggal di Indiana, 1872. Ia menikah di Garrard county, Kentucky, 4 April 1809, Leannah Wilson, putri William dan Nancy (Banks) Wilson .

Daerah Montgomery dibentuk dari bagian dari daerah Clark di bawah tindakan Legislatif Kentucky disetujui 14 Desember 1796, berlaku 1 Maret 1797. Pada tanggal 8 Februari 1798, Gubernur memberhentikan resimen baru milisi, menjadi tiga puluh satu, untuk dimasukkan ke dalam county Montgomery dan mengangkat James Poage, Letnan Kolonel Komandan, dan Andrew Swearingen, Mayor dari Batalyon Pertama, dan Samuel Downing, Mayor dari Batalyon Kedua. (Perwira lain yang ditugaskan untuk Resimen Milisi ini juga disebutkan). (Dari arsip Kentucky.)

POAGE - James Poage disebut sebagai salah satu penjelajah pertama dari apa yang sekarang disebut wilayah Montgomery. Ia dikatakan telah menetap di dekat Gunung Sterling pada tahun 1792. Ia diangkat sebagai Hakim Pengadilan Sesi Perempatan untuk wilayah baru Montgomery, namanya ditampilkan pertama kali. daftar pajak, 1797, sebagai pemilik tanah besar dan dia diangkat menjadi Komandan Resimen Milisi pertama untuk wilayah Montgomery. Sayangnya, tidak ada catatan lebih lanjut yang tersedia tentang James Poage di county ini, namun beberapa catatan tentang keluarga di Kentucky dan Virginia mungkin menarik: Seorang William Poage tinggal di Harrodsburg dari tahun 1776 hingga 1778 dia adalah orang yang cerdik, dan membuat semua ember , ember susu, bak mandi, dan piala yang digunakan oleh orang-orang di Benteng. Jandanya menikah dengan Joseph Lindsey pada tahun 1781, dan beberapa tahun kemudian dia menikah dengan James McGinty. (Sejarah Collins dari Kentucky). Pada tahun 1739, dua bersaudara, John dan Robert Poage, datang ke Amerika mendarat di Philadelphia, dan kemudian pergi ke Virginia. Robert Poage menikahi anak-anak Elizabeth Preston: Margaret, John, Martha, Sarah, George, Mary, William, Elizabeth, Robert, Thomas. Robert Poage adalah salah satu penatua pertama dari gereja Old Stone, Augusta county, Virginia. John Poage, putra Robert, Sr. menikahi anak-anak Jean Somers: John, Grace, Martha, Robert, William, Anne, James, Jonathan, Thomas, dan Rebecca. Di antara para perwira Milisi Virginia county Augusta dalam Perang Revolusi adalah James Poage, Letnan John Poage, Ensign dan George Poage, Kapten.

Ada juga satu keluarga kulit berwarna "Free Tom" yang tinggal di Mt. Sterling, Kentucky, pada saat pencacahan Sensus Federal tahun 1810.

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George Hardwick

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Community Contributions

Fiona Irwin on 15th July, 2020 wrote:

George Hardwick was born in 1810 to parents John and his wife Ann. George grew up in Ashbocking, a small town in the Parish of Ipswich, in the rural County of Suffolk in England. George was one of five surviving children with three siblings having died during their childhood: John born in 1804 died in 1811 Martin born in 1807 died in 1818 and Maria born in 1812 died in 1825.
In 1838, when George came in contact with the law for the first time for the offence of stealing fowls, he was already married to Amy with a daughter Cecilia and had another child on the way. Their son, George William Hardwick, was born in the second half of 1838. In 1840 when George was apprehended for the second time, he had a further child on the way and Miriam was born in 1840.
For his second offence George was sentenced for 7 years transportation for stealing lead from a Church Yard, and he was held at the gaol at Ipswich from 4 July to 14 July 1840 before being transferred to the prison hulk Warrior which was moored off Woolwich and at Chatham on the Thames.
After spending just over 20 months on board the Warrior, George who was found to be in good health was gathered up in leg irons with 279 convicts and transported to Van Diemen’s Land on the Eden which departed Woolwich on 12 March in 1842. For a male convict born in 1810, George’s height measured in 1842 of 70.5 inches was approximately 4.5 inches above the average height of convict men who had grown up in the rural areas of Great Britain. When George was transported on the Eden he was leaving behind his wife Amy and Cecilia, his seven year-old-daughter.
The Eden was under the command of Lieutenant Gordon, 29 rank and file of the 99th regiment with the ship’s crew and also four women and three children were on board. Eden’s surgeon, Mr Alexander Neill, indicated in the general remarks section of his daily sick book journal that the general appearance of the convicts was favourable, however, several had been affected by confinement and diet in the hulks and two were returned.
By 8 June Neill had written in the journal that serious health problems had arisen during the voyage when they encountered a huge storm off the Island of Amsterdam. During the storm the Eden was damaged, tarpaulins had washed off the hatchways and forty convicts in the prison and their bedding had been drenched by seawater. A week later Neill had noted the air in the prison and in the hospital had become ‘truly oppressive’. He continued to add in his journal the weather remained stormy from 8 June until the day of arrival in Van Diemen’s Land.
Fortunately, George Hardwick’s name did not appear in the journal but many of his fellow transportees were struck down by injury or ill health. The life-threatening diseases on Eden’s voyage were related to scurvy and consumption, an old term for what we now know is tuberculosis and Neill also noted one of the convict’s underlying health condition of syphilis had greatly reduced his capacity to overcome scurvy.
According to the journal, 20 percent of the convicts required medical treatment for illness or injury. In total Neill treated fifteen soldiers, four sailors, one of the children (a boy) and fifty-five convicts. Convicts Jonathan Brown aged 49 and John Kaye aged 55 had chronic illnesses diagnosed and had been hospitalised prior to the voyage and they made up two of the four deaths attributed to the later stages of scurvy (scorbutic dysentery). Given their age and their previous health problems it is surprising that Kaye and Brown had been selected fit for travel. The fifth convict death was due to tuberculosis.
After 105 days the Eden arrived in Van Diemen’s Land on 5 July 1842, and George was sent on 13 July to the Salt Water Creek Probation Station for a twelve-month period during which time his health remained good as was his conduct. Before he received his ticket of leave on 17 January 1846 he worked as a labourer in Brighton and in Glenorchy. By 1849 when he had received his freedom, George had settled in the Derwent Valley and he continued his trade of bootmaker.
Though George’s wife and daughter did not join him, he went on to cohabitate and have four children with Elizabeth Purdon until 1854 when Elizabeth died in childbirth. He then married Mary Cary in Richmond in 1855 and went on to have 6 more children. Of the ten children born, only one died in infancy.
George, however, did have a further brush with the law and in 1853 a charge of larceny that was brought against him was said to have been ‘ignored’. Perhaps George’s prosperity was underpinned by his good health, farming and labouring knowledge and skills that were in demand, he had settled in Brighton in the Derwent Valley, an area known for its fertile soils, and was able to successfully farm the land whilst still plying his trade as a bootmaker. And after his brush with the law in 1853 he was able stay on the right side of the law. George was able to live on until an old age and he died on 9 October 1889 in Brighton in his 79th year.
Many thanks to the Hardwick family for lending me their family history resources.

Convict Changes History

Fiona Irwin on 15th July, 2020 made the following changes:

date of birth: 1810 (prev. 0000), date of death: 9th October, 1889 (prev. 0000), occupation, crime


The southernmost part of the town of Hardwick along the Ware River featured a covered bridge, corn mill, saw mill, coal house, forge, and a scattering of residences by 1772. 1 A new furnace was erected by 1815 under the management of Col. Thomas Wheeler and Lemuel Harrington at which point the area became known as New Furnace. For a brief period between 1832 and the 1840s, a paper mill was located along the river.

Seeking to expand his woolen manufacturing lines in Ware, industrialist George Gilbert of the George Gilbert Manufacturing Company purchased land along the Ware River in the late 1850s. 1

Gilbert moved to Ware in 1841 and in partnership with Charles A. Stevens, purchased the former Hampshire Manufacturing Company. 1 It produced bread cloths, and later flannels. The company added a stone mill in 1846 which specialized in white and opera flannels. After the partnership dissolved in 1851, Gilbert’s nephew, Lewis N. Gilbert, joined him and was made a full partner in the George H. Gilbert & Company in 1857. In 1867, the company became known as the George H. Gilbert Manufacturing Company.

With demand outpacing supply, Gilbert sought ample land to expand. The first mill in New Furnace, Mill No. 1, was constructed in 1860 and was producing worsteds and flannels by 1862. 1 Mill No. 2 was added in 1863, followed by Mill No. 3 in 1864 and Mill No. 4 in 1867. A major addition was made to Mill No. 1 in 1883.

The mills were originally powered by the force of a canal via the Ware River, which was augmented by a coal-fired power plant in 1912. 1

By the early 20th century, the wool industry began to move to the South, and companies that remained did not invest in technological improvements to their production lines. The Gilbert Manufacturing Company mills operated at far less than capacity and Mill No. 3 was torn down in 1916.

Vested through powers granted from a legislative act in 1926, the Metropolitan Water Supply Commission began diverting floodwaters from the Ware River at Coldbrook in March 1931 to serve as a water supply for the city of Worcester. 4 The damming of the river lessened both the quantity and quality of the water to the point that it was no longer suitable for washing and treating the woolen cloth it manufactured nor was there enough water power to support the mills. The trial, the longest ever in the Hampshire County courts at 28 days, resulted in a favorable judgment for the company in January 1934, whereas it was awarded $305,708 in damages—but by that point, the company and its assets had been sold to a group of outside investors for $119,000. 1 It continued to operate at low levels of production before the facilities were severely damaged by a hurricane in 1938.

After the hurricane, the Sugarman Company of Coatesville, Pennsylvania was retained to liquidate the company holdings, a process that continued into the 1940s. 1 Mill No. 2 was dismantled and sold for salvage in the late 1940s while others were largely vacated. During the 1950s, Mill No. 1 was used by the William Carter Company to produce women’s and children’s clothing, complimenting its other mills in Springfield, Barnesville and Forsythe, Georgia and Senatobia, Mississippi. 2 3 Mill No. 4 was acquired by the Salem family and used as the Gilbertville Storage Company. 5

Company Town

The Gilbert Manufacturing Company constructed a small company-owned village that consisted of: 1

  • The c. 1863 Gilbertville Hall, a three-story mansard-roofed structure with a hall on the upper floors and a retail store on the lower level
  • The c. 1912 Gilbertville Public Library funded by Col. Edward H. Gilbert and designed in the Classical Revival style
  • The c. 1883 Gilbertville Union Hall that included a skating rink
  • The c. 1874 St. Aloysius Church, a stone Gothic Revival style facility constructed at the cost of $50,000, the result of a bequest of George Gilbert’s will in 1869 and augmented by substantial family and company gifts. A chapel and parsonage were added c. 1884. Prior to the completion of the church, the congregation met in the Hall.
  • A c. 1870 store operated by the Hitchcock family with a boardinghouse above on south Main Street
  • A c. 1870 school at the corner of High and Highland Streets. It was replaced with an elementary school in 1903 and a high school in 1910, both designed by E.C. and G.C. Gardner. The high school was relocated from Hardwick Center.
  • A passenger depot, freight station, and warehouse along the Ware River Railroad, which later became the Central Massachusetts Railroad
  • A c. 1882 bandstand
  • Approximately 69 multi-family residences, 186 tenements, and nine single-family structures.

The village of Gilbertville was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1991.


Sejarah

Hardwick Estate has a long and fascinating history including a role in the English civil war, and as one of the inspirations for Wind in the Willows.

At the time of the Battle of Hastings in 1066, Hardwick and its lands were owned by Wigod, the Saxon Lord of Wallingford. The Doomsday book records a dwelling on the current location of Hardwick House, whose cellars are believed to originate from this era.

1842 drawing of Hardwick House

In the thirteenth century, the house and grounds passed into the hands of a Norman French family called the de Hardwicks, and in 1527 the Estate was purchased by Richard Lybbe, a wealthy landowner with links to the royal family, who built the Elizabethan manor – Hardwick House. The family’s royal connection made them a target for Oliver Cromwell’s republican army during the civil war, and Hardwick was attacked and ransacked. Later, when King Charles I was imprisoned in Oxford he visited Hardwick to drink ale and play bowls on a green on the Estate.

Sir Charles Day Rose bought the Estate in 1909, having rented it since 1871 after the Lybbe Powys’s fell on hard times. He was a banker, sportsman and Liberal politician thought to be the inspiration for the character Mr Toad in Wind in the Willows, which was written by his banking contemporary Kenneth Grahame who lived in Pangbourne. As Liberal Member of Parliament for Newmarket and Cambridge he became a supporter of David Lloyd George’s ‘people’s budget’, advocating redistribution of land, and abolition of the House of Lords. The enormous wealth which he amassed via mining and railway investments in North America, India and Africa was spent on his passion for sports. At Hardwick he built a race horse breeding stud farm which turned out several Derby winners, and two Real Tennis courts, one of which is still an active club. He was also a pioneering motorist, yachtsman and aviator.

The Rose family continue to own and manage the Estate to this day. In the 1950s and 60s Sir Charles Rose placed emphasis on Hardwick’s forestry, and it became one of the first English woodlands to experiment with planting Thuja Plicata (Western Red Cedar), alongside high grade Beech for furniture making, winning several awards.

In 1975 the farmland was converted to organic status by Sir Julian Rose, the present Estate owner, and his mother Phoebe, and by 1983 Julian was running a thriving organic mixed family farm including a Guernsey dairy herd producing unpasteurised milk, as well as beef, woodland pigs, sheep, chickens, and arable. An award winning farm shop was established at Path Hill selling produce from the farm and its neighbours, and the raw milk, cream and bacon won national awards on a number of occasions. The now renowned horticulturalist Iain Tolhurst and his family took over the Estate’s historic market garden at the same time, producing high quality organic veg. Sadly, increasing government regulation, supermarket dominance, as well as the BSE and foot and mouth crises put the farm shop out of business, and Julian instead focused his energy on campaigning to save what he calls ‘Real Food’ and the family farms that produce it, from the forces of mechanisation and corporate agriculture.

The Old Dairy Farm Shop and farm events in the 1990s

There are several books and films with more information on Hardwick’s vivid history:

The Real Mr Toad: Merchant Venturer and Radical in the Age of Gold by Michael Redley is a mini biography of Sir Charles Day Rose documenting his role in shaking up Edwardian society, as well as the sadness and intrigue in his private life.

The booklet is available from the Bell Bookshop in Henley, Garlands in Pangbourne, and the Hardwick Estate Office for £7.

William Barefield Hutt, whose family lived and worked on the Estate from around 1900 until the 1970s, wrote a series of memoirs including Hardwick, which details his family’s experiences working for Sir Charles Day Rose as well as latterly. It can be purchased from the Whitchurch and Goring Heath History Society for £8.


George Hardwick history under the hammer

MAJOR Boro items of huge historic significance will come under the hammer next month.

MAJOR Boro items of huge historic significance will come under the hammer next month.

They come from Boro legend’s George Hardwick extensive and remarkable collection of rare and elusive artefacts.

The Hardwick material is going up for sale at the Mullock’s Ltd Football Auction at Ludlow Racecourse on July 7.

The remarkable collection includes the unique Great Britain shirt which George wore when he skippered the four nations in the 1947 match against the Rest of Europe to celebrate the return of peace to the continent.

The shirt has been on display at the Riverside Stadium for a few years.

The auction collection also includes nine of George’s international caps, plus an England blazer and an autographed 1950s England shirt.

Keith Hartwell from Mullock’s said: “We are delighted to be able to include George Hardwick’s collection in our football auction next month.

“The items available form the extensive part of all of George’s memorabilia. I am sure there will be a great deal of interest.”

Saltburn-born George, whose outstanding career is commemorated by a statue outside the Riverside, was a Boro player from 1937 to 1950.

He played 166 games for the club, most of them at left-back, though he lost seven years of his career because of the Second World War, when he served in the RAF.

He captained England in all 13 of his post-war international appearances, with the Great Britain captaincy being his greatest honour.

George went on to manage Oldham Athletic, coached in Germany and Holland, and later managed Sunderland, where he gave Brian Clough his first coaching role.

Hardwick was a regular attender at Boro home games until his death in 2004, at the age of 84.

Some of the extremely collectable items in the Mullock’s auction include junior medals which George was awarded when he was a teenager with South Bank East End.

The nine international caps include his first one, which came in a 7-2 victory against Northern Ireland in season 1946-47.

In addition to the shirt which George wore against the Rest of Europe, when he played at right-back, there is also an inscripted silver plaque from the match.

Another rare item is the winner’s medal which George received when he was player-manager of Oldham Athletic when they won the Division Three North Championship in 1953.

One of the last medals George received is also included in the auction.

It is the Football League 100 Legends gold medal which he was awarded in 1999, when the Football League celebrated the start of the 100th season of league football.

Mullock’s are based in Church Stretton in Shropshire. Further information is available from mullocksauctions.co.uk

Meanwhile, Boro forward Oliver Norris has died in Australia at the age of 82 after a long illness.

Derry-born Oliver came to Teesside as a 17-year-old in 1948 after being spotted playing for St Eugene&aposs Boys by Eddie Davis, who arranged for a trial with Boro.

Nicknamed “Narker”, he made his debut in a 2-0 win at Newcastle in 1952 and went on to make 13 appearances and score three goals before moving to Bournemouth in 1955.

Most of his eight seasons with Boro were spent in the reserves.

However he became one of the most talked about players in England in 1957 when he was part of the Bournemouth side that reached the FA Cup quarter-final, beating Danny Blanchlower’s Spurs and Billy Wright’s Wolves before losing 2-1 to Manchester United.

He later played for Northampton and Rochdale and managed Gloucester City before moving to Australia, where he worked as a coach for the Australian Soccer Federation.

After moving Down Under he continued to play and coach and he played a part in the early career of Mark Viduka, who went on to become a Boro and Socceroos legend.

BORO have reported that limited places are still available for the Father&aposs Day lunch at the Riverside on Sunday.

Prices are £25 for adults and £12.50 for children for a three-course lunch plus coffee and mints.

A tour of the stadium is included and there is a gift for each dad attending.


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George Hardwick - History

George Francis Moutry Hardwick, the son of an electrician and a schoolmistress, was born at Saltburn on February 2 1920 many of his forebears were Scottish smugglers. He weighed 12lb at birth.

His father was employed by Pease and Partners, and worked in an ironstone pit on the edge of the Yorkshire moors. When the pit closed he lost his job. "Everyone was unemployed," George remembered. "My mother and father went without food so that I would have enough to eat. I remember getting up with my father at 3am to go out in the fields gathering mushrooms. That was our meal for the day. My grandfather on my mother's side was an engine driver. He was still in work, and he and his associates used to collect old children's clothes, shoes, boots, anything, and pass it on to us. Mother tore apart old woollen jumpers to re-knit them as red and white jerseys and stockings for us to play football in."
Hardwick signed for Middlesbrough (for a 5 fee) in April 1937, scoring an own goal on his debut. The outbreak of war saw him join the RAF while training as an air gunner, he was nearly killed during a Luftwaffe attack on his base in Bedfordshire. He then became a sergeant in RAF Bomber Command.
During the war he turned out for Chelsea, appearing in two wartime Wembley cup finals he also played 17 wartime internationals for England, games which did not earn a full cap and were intended as morale-boosting exercises. Once, playing for Chelsea against Fulham, the sirens were sounded in the middle of the match all the players threw themselves flat on the ground: "The Germans bombed the other side of the river, and the referee blew his whistle to carry on." After the war, Chelsea wanted to sign Hardwick from Middlesbrough the Chelsea chairman travelled to Teesside, placed a blank cheque in front of his opposite number and invited him to fill it in. Middlesbrough declined.

At Hampden Park in 1947, Hardwick captained Great Britain against a FIFA side, Great Britain winning 6-1. In all he went on to make 166 appearances for Middlesbrough, scoring five goals. In November 1950 he was transferred to Oldham Athletic, for whom, as player-manager, he made 190 appearances and scored 14 times. After retiring as a player, Hardwick coached the United States 7th Army in Germany he then coached PSV Eindhoven (1957-59) and the Dutch national side (1959-61), before rejoining Middlesbrough as youth team coach.

In November 1964 Hardwick was appointed manager of Sunderland. Despite guiding the Wearside club to what was then their highest post-war position, he was sacked after only 169 days. During this period he started Brian Clough on his managerial career, by appointing him coach to the youth team. Hardwick never, of course, knew the lifestyle enjoyed by today's successful footballers. But he was a handsome man, and was friendly with actresses such as Kay Kendall, Shirley Eaton, Margaret Lockwood and Ava Gardner.

He was guest of honour at Wembley when England lost 2-0 to France in February 1999, and was not impressed by what he saw: "By God, they played without an atom of pride. I've never seen 11 players with less guts. My players would have walked home if they'd played like that." He added: "For the players, it's all too quick and easy now. For us it was about pride. I wanted to be somebody, so I worked for it."

He is survived by his second wife Jennifer (née Totterdell) they were together for 36 years and married in 1983. From his previous marriage he had two sons, who survive him. - The Telegraph obituary


History of Sodomy Laws

The Sensibilities of Our Forefathers, the definitive legal history of sodomy laws in the United States by George Painter. It puts everything else here to shame.

Survey of Key Developments Worldwide by Alan Freeman

Other history articles

The proscription of sodomy in the English tradition began in 1533 when King Henry VIII adopted contemporary church doctrine into a system of laws at the time of the English withdrawal from the Catholic Church. Sodomy became both a sin and a crime, since ecclesiastical law recognizes no distinction between the concepts of "sin" and "crime." Sodomy included any form of non-procreative acts including masturbation, oral and anal sex.

The original thirteen American colonies derived their laws from the English common law and continued the legal tradition in which sodomy carried the penalty of death.

The 1683 Pennsylvania law called sodomy an "unnatural sin" and the East New Jersey law listed it among the "Offenses against God."

Every state adopted some form of a sodomy law as it joined the United States, either in acceptance of an unwritten common law or in formal codification. A slow modernization of laws away from a religious doctrine into a secular system reduced penalties over time in a piece meal fashion. All states had laws against sodomy by 1960.

The 1955 edition of the American Law Institute’s model penal code omitted sodomy laws for the first time. In 1961, the Illinois legislature revised their criminal code without prohibiting sodomy. The law went into effect in 1962 without fanfare.

Idaho was the second state to repeal its sodomy law through a general modernization of its laws. According to Dr. Franklin E. Kameny, the Advocate, then a gay newspaper, ran a headline celebrating the repeal. This came to the attention of Idaho state legislators who called an emergency session "into which they marched waving copies of the Advocate." The legislature repealed the just enacted modern criminal code. Connecticut was the next state to repeal its sodomy law in 1971 in a modernization of the penal code. Twenty-one other states followed suit. Gay activists had little or no involvement with most of these repeals. In fact, many of the states that repealed their laws are just beginning to form organizations that can lobby effectively for their rights.

Exceptions that trend came from California, Minnesota, New York and DC. Gay Activists in these places began explicit gay rights campaigns to repeal their sodomy laws. California was the only one of these states to successfully repeal its law prior to 1980.

California’s sodomy repeal effort began in 1969 with urging from Morris Kight, Rev. Troy Perry and others. The repeal bill was introduced to the California legislature starting in 1969 by Assemblyman Willie Brown, and every year afterwards until its passage in 1975. In 1975, the liberal Democratic state Senate Majority Leader, George Moscone — running for Mayor of San Francisco — twisted many arms for its passage. The Senate deadlocked on a 20-20 vote, Moscone locked the chamber doors, until Lieutenant Governor Merv Dymallyin could fly back from Denver and cast the tie-breaking vote. It was signed into law by Gov. Jerry Brown.

Moscone’s efforts won the support of the large gay population of San Francisco and Moscone beat Diane Feinstein in the primary, and edged out city superintendent John Barbagelata to become the first liberal mayor of San Francisco. Moscone was later assassinated by former supervisor Dan White along with the first gay supervisor, Harvey Milk. Brown and Feinstein later became Mayors and Feinstein is currently a US Senator from California.

In the late 1970’s and early 1980’s the growing strength and politicization of religious extremists significantly slowed the repeal efforts. The awaking of religious political extremists led to at least two states to enact specifically anti-gay sodomy laws at the same time as they otherwise modernized their criminal codes. Kentucky enacted a homosexual-only sodomy law in 1974. Arkansas did the same in 1977 with the approval of then state Attorney General Bill Clinton.

The Kentucky law was declared unconstitutional in Commonwealth v. Wasson under the equal protection and privacy rights of the Kentucky constitution. The Arkansas law is currently being challenged.

At the same time, the AIDS crisis took the fledgling gay political community away from gay rights issues, including sodomy repeal, and focused the efforts on care, treatment and other more immediate needs of people with HIV and AIDS.

Courts and lawmakers withdrew from repeal efforts in light of the potential criticism of promoting homosexual sex at a time that the HIV transmission modes were becoming known. Transmission of HIV through anal sex was a major factor blocking the 1987 Minnesota repeal bill.

In 1986 Bowers v. Hardwick was decided by the US Supreme Court and sparked a resurgence of interest in sodomy laws.

Michael Hardwick was a bartender in a gay bar in Atlanta, Georgia who was targeted by a police officer for harassment. In 1982, an unknowing houseguest let the officer let into Hardwick’s home the officer went to the bedroom where Hardwick was engaged in sex with his partner. The men were arrested on the charge of sodomy. Charges were later dropped, but Hardwick brought the case forward with the purpose of having the sodomy law declared unconstitutional.

Bower was a response to a particularly insulting police action and repeal advocates had hoped that the case would put an end to sodomy laws in the United States when it reached the Supreme Court. Unfortunately, the 5-4 decision found that nothing in the Constitution "would extend a fundamental right to homosexuals to engage in acts of consensual sodomy."

Justice Lewis Powell was the swing vote in the decision, switching from supporting invalidating all sodomy laws to denying homosexuals any right of privacy. In October of 1990, three years after his retirement, Powell told a group of New York University Law students, "I think I probably made a mistake in that one." He told the National Law Journal, "That case was not a major case, and one of the reasons I voted the way I did was the case was a frivolous case" brought "just to see what the court would do" on the subject. A more callous opinion is hard to imagine. As AIDS services became institutionalized and the benefits of direct action on AIDS issues waned, activists in the 1990’s returned to gay issues and sodomy repeal efforts were again successful.

Since the Bower decision two states, Nevada and Rhode Island, and the District of Columbia have repealed their laws. In all three successful efforts there was an explicit goal by mostly gay activists to repeal the law, in contrast to the code modernization of earlier efforts. Repeal advocates in other states also launched or continued to introduce repeal legislation.

In Washington, DC, activists had been successful in 1981 in passing the Sexual Assault Reform bill, which modernized DC’s law on sex crimes. The bill passed the DC Council and was signed by then Mayor Marion Barry. The US Congress controls all of DC legislation bowing to anti-gay sentiment led by Jerry Fawell in a national campaign, killed the entire bill. New legislation was introduced every year starting in 1982 but it languished in the Judiciary Committee controlled by Wilhelmina Rolark.

In February 1992, a raid on a private gay club, the Follies Theater, resulting in 14 arrests㬇 on sodomy charges—sparked the gay community to focus efforts on repealing the sodomy law once again.

A separate arrest in 1992 of two men engaging in consensual sex in their car parked in DC also evoked community outrage. The two fought the law in court before a jury and essentially admitted to the act in court, but argued that they had not done anything that should be criminalized. The jury agreed and neutralized the law in their case.

A group of repeal activists from the direct action group Queer Nation turned themselves in to the police for committing sodomy in the District. The police, shocked by this action, were left scrambling for a response. They eventually took sworn statements from 3 couples who could testify that they had committed sodomy with each other. No arrests were made and no one was prosecuted.

Facing considerable public opposition to the arrests, Mayor Sharon Pratt Kelly ordered the police chief to stop enforcing the law against consenting adults.

An amendment to an unrelated bill to reform the law was proposed in 1992 but defeated by the DC Council.

Mayor Marion Barry’s unrelated personal and legal problems resulted in a 6-month jail term for crack cocaine possession. He had declined to run for Mayor in 1990, but in 1992 ran for City Council against Rolark. Rolark was defeated and in 1993, with a shift in committee chairs, the bill was introduced to the City Council.

Hearings on the bill lasted for nearly 9 hours without a break and were almost completely dominated by gay activists. Dr. Kameny, representing the Traditional Values Coalition of Washington, DC and the Mattachine Society, opened the hearing with strong testimony in favor of the bill. Kameny, who had worked for repeal of the law for more that 30 years, testified that sodomy should be legalized and considered "good, moral, and rewarding."

Kameny had incorporated Traditional Values Coalition in DC forcing the national anti-gay activist group to be identified as being from California where they are incorporated, significantly diminishing their impact on the locally elected officials. Most of the opposition testimony came from local Baptist ministers but they, and a Catholic official, admitted that they were most concerned about public sex which the sodomy-reform bill would not have legalized.

The reform bill, written by Kameny, stated simply "No act engaged in only by consenting persons 16 years of age or older shall constitute an offense under this section." Kameny had wanted to simultaneously repeal the adultery, fornication and similar laws, but met with opposition from DC Council members. The bill passed the Council unanimously and Mayor Kelly signed it in a public ceremony.

Representatives of national gay rights groups—including the Human Rights Campaign Fund, the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and the Campaign for Military Service—asked DC activists to delay sending the reform bill to Congress for approval, saying that the gays in the military fight strained their resources. The DC activists refused. Rep. Barney Frank (D-MA) asked the Republican leadership in the Senate not to support an amendment drafted by Sen. Jesse Helms (R-NC) and they, not wishing another fight on gay sexuality, complied, allowing the reform bill to become law.

The sodomy law was repealed completely in 1995 with the passage of the Sexual Assault Reform bill that finally modernized the DC criminal code.

After the Nevada Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Nevada gay-only sodomy law, the legislature in 1993 amended the law making four major changes.

The bill made oral and anal sex criminal only when performed in public and removed the qualification that made it apply only to acts committed between adults of the same-sex. The archaic, offensive and vague language "infamous crimes against nature" was replaced with "anal intercourse, cunnilingus, or fellatio." And the section stating that "any sex penetration, however slight is sufficient to complete the crime against nature" was removed, as it was no longer meaningful with the new language.

Nevada, unlike DC, benefited from the strategy of amending the sodomy law into a public sex law. By expanding reform of the law that only prohibited homosexual acts into a wider issue, the anti-gay activists were blunted.

The Rhode Island Supreme Court failed to overturn the state’s "Abominable and Detestable Crime Against Nature" law in four separate cases from 1962 through 1985. A reform bill was introduced in 1984 by Rep. John Harwood, a Democrat who later became Speaker of the House. The reformed law would have allowed "private, consensual sexual acts between adults." It was in response to sexual misconduct by police at a bachelor party and was not sought for the protection of gay and lesbian people. The bill passed the House, but was blocked by the Senate.

Jorge Lopes was charged with sexual assault after a woman accused him of forcing her to submit to vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Lopes testified that they had sex, but he argued that it was consensual. The jury believed him, acquitting him of sexual assault but, acting on instructions from the judge, found him guilty of committing an abominable and detestable crime against nature. The Supreme Court, in State of Rhode Island v. Jorge Lopes, upheld the decision but did not rule on the law’s constitutionality. Lopes was given a 10-year suspended sentence with 10 years probation. ,

In frustration with the state Supreme Court’s pro-sodomy law opinions, repeal activists started to introduce their own legislation. But they failed to repeal the sodomy law until 1998.

In September 1997, North Smithfield, Rhode Island police tried to make a case against two men who had allegedly committed consensual sex in the woods near Route 146.

The incident came to light when one of the two men went to the police to complain that his wallet was stolen during the sexual encounter, and the police charged both men – the alleged thief and his alleged victim – with "abominable and detestable crime(s) against nature." Attorney General Jeffrey B. Pine declined to prosecute.

The case received considerable attention in the press and led to resurgence in support for legislative repeal.

Added to the repeal efforts was Superior Court Judge Frank Williams’ decision in the Block Island rape trial, which threw out the sodomy charge and acquitted Edward F. McGovern, a prominent politician in New Shorem, and his co-defendants of sexual assault charges. Williams ruled that the Rhode Island sodomy law violates the equal-protection clause of the state Constitution because it treats married and unmarried couples differently. The Attorney General declined to appeal, but repeal advocates feared that the decision would be overturned by the state Supreme Court.

Repeal advocates turned away from the court as a possible avenue and began introducing repeal legislation in 1992. Finding the legislature to be unready to pass the bill, votes were not called for six years. The bill was even withdrawn in 1995, so as not to interfere with the passage of the non-discrimination law that passed that year. The House Judiciary committee did hold a hearing in 1996, but the bill did not move forward.

The repeal bill’s House sponsor, Rep. Edith Ajello—strategizing with gay and lesbian rights activists—finally thought that passage was a possibility in 1998. On May 7, 1998 the repeal bill passed the Rhode Island House on a vote of 49 to 40. The Rhode Island Senate voted 26 to 17 on June 2, 1998 to repeal the law. Republican Governor Lincoln Almond signed the bill into law.


From Christopher Hardwick

Yours of the 8th Instant Came to hand the 20th1. I wou’d have wrote to you as often as you Desire, but that I have nothing material to Mention so often to write to you about, neither have I at this time any agreeable News or acct to Send to you in regard to our Crop the Weather being so excessive Dry, had not one Shower of rain since my Last Letter to you ’till Sunday last,2 makes me fear it will be but a poor Crop, tho. Better with you than with any other in our Neighbourhood, our last planting is but very small by the Drought & a great deal of it burnt up—According to your Directions I have sent the Mare with her four Colts to Mount Vernon, & wrote to John Alton to take particular Care of them,3 I shall have the Wheat Threshed out as soon as possible, people won’t ⟨ mutilated ⟩ hired to thresh at this Time, nor can I spare any of our own people ⟨ mutilated ⟩o it, as yet, Please to let me know what Quantity of wheat you’l have Sowed this year, your people are all well, I have nothing else material to Mention but am with due Respect Sir your most Humble & Obedient Servant

P.S. Sir please to write to me by the first opportunity concerning the Wheat.

1 . GW’s letter of 8 Aug. has not been found.

2 . The most recent letter found from Hardwick is dated 3 August.

3 . See Humphrey Knight to GW, 24 Aug., for the arrival of the mare and colts at Mount Vernon on 23 August.


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