J.M. Charteris

J.M. Charteris

J. Charteris lahir di Kirkcaldy. Pada tahun 1888, Charteris pindah ke London untuk bekerja di Royal Arsenal di Woolwich, salah satu pabrik amunisi utama pemerintah.

Di sisi kanan, Charteris melakukan debutnya untuk Woolwich Arsenal pada musim 1888-89. Dia bergabung dengan tim yang terdiri dari Humphrey Babour, Peter Connolly, David Danskin, Richard Horsington, Fred Beardsley, Joseph Bates, John McBean dan W. Scott.

Woolwich Arsenal terus membuat kemajuan yang baik dan memenangkan Piala Amal London pada tahun 1890. Sayangnya, karir sepak bola Charteris 'berakhir ketika ia patah kakinya dalam permainan pada November 1890. Selama waktunya di klub ia mencetak 24 gol di 28 pertandingan.


Model penilaian risiko untuk identifikasi pasien medis rawat inap yang berisiko mengalami tromboemboli vena: Skor Prediksi Padua

Latar belakang: Profilaksis tromboemboli vena (VTE) pada pasien medis yang dirawat di rumah sakit sebagian besar kurang dimanfaatkan. Kami berusaha untuk menilai nilai model penilaian risiko sederhana (RAM) untuk identifikasi pasien yang berisiko VTE.

Metode: Dalam studi kohort prospektif, 1180 pasien berturut-turut dirawat di departemen penyakit dalam dalam periode 2 tahun diklasifikasikan memiliki risiko tinggi atau rendah VTE menurut RAM yang telah ditentukan. Mereka ditindaklanjuti hingga 90 hari untuk menilai terjadinya komplikasi VTE simtomatik. Hasil studi utama adalah untuk menilai rasio hazard yang disesuaikan (HR) VTE pada pasien berisiko tinggi yang memiliki tromboprofilaksis di rumah sakit yang memadai dibandingkan dengan mereka yang tidak, dan VTE pada kelompok terakhir dibandingkan dengan risiko rendah. pasien.

Hasil: Empat ratus enam puluh sembilan pasien (39,7%) diberi label memiliki risiko tinggi trombosis. VTE berkembang pada empat dari 186 (2,2%) yang menerima tromboprofilaksis, dan pada 31 dari 283 (11,0%) yang tidak (HR VTE, 0,13 95% CI, 0,04-0,40). VTE juga berkembang pada dua dari 711 (0,3%) pasien berisiko rendah (HR VTE pada pasien berisiko tinggi tanpa profilaksis dibandingkan dengan pasien berisiko rendah, 32,0 95% CI, 4,1-251,0). Pendarahan terjadi pada tiga dari 186 (1,6%) pasien berisiko tinggi yang memiliki tromboprofilaksis.

Kesimpulan: RAM kami dapat membantu membedakan antara pasien medis dengan risiko VTE tinggi dan rendah. Penerapan tromboprofilaksis yang memadai pada pasien berisiko tinggi selama rawat inap menyebabkan perlindungan jangka panjang terhadap kejadian tromboemboli dengan risiko perdarahan yang rendah.


Pembingkai kami menginspirasi kami untuk belajar lebih banyak, berbuat lebih banyak, dan menjadi lebih banyak setiap hari. Baca tentang beberapa pelanggan kami yang luar biasa di bawah ini. Apakah Anda seorang pembuat bingkai dengan cerita untuk diceritakan atau pertanyaan untuk diajukan? Kami ingin mendengarnya di [email protected]

Frame De Art adalah Pahlawan Kami

Frame De Art, yang dimiliki oleh Brian Hart, saat ini merupakan toko bingkai non-rantai terbesar di Colorado. Mereka membingkai untuk perusahaan dan klien dari semua jenis, termasuk universitas lokal, tim olahraga besar dan atlet di Colorado, Gubernur, dan Walikota Denver Hancock.

Bingkai yang Lebih Baik Bekerja dengan Cara Baru

Perancang pemenang penghargaan Meg Glasgow menyesuaikan perusahaannya, Fine Frames, dengan normal baru dan mendukung komunitas dengan berbagai cara.

Jadilah Tanpa Batas dengan FrameWorks

FrameWorks dimiliki dan dioperasikan oleh Christine Sweeny dan Claire Lardner, keduanya Certified Picture Framers. Selama lebih dari 20 tahun, FrameWorks telah menyediakan solusi pembingkaian kustom profesional dan layanan desain untuk galeri, koleksi seni publik dan pribadi, seniman, bisnis, hotel, dan klien perumahan.

Naik ke Level Tertinggi dengan The Frame Workshop of Appleton

Suami dan istri, John dan Sarah Ranes, pertama kali membuka The Frame Workshop of Appleton, Inc. pada bulan September 1978 sebagai toko bingkai DIY dan Kustom, tetapi perlahan-lahan melakukan diversifikasi ke beberapa hadiah dan barang dekorasi rumah di tahun 1980-an. Saat ini bisnis ini merupakan perpaduan yang kuat antara pembingkaian kustom, hadiah, dekorasi rumah, dan dekorasi Natal Eropa yang didukung dengan kehadiran Online yang kuat sejak 2001. Pembingkaian kustom kreatif selalu mendominasi citra bisnis mereka saat mereka memenangkan penghargaan penyelesaian pembingkaian pertama di New Orleans pada tahun 1981 Itu merangsang masuk dan menang dan belajar karena mereka telah mengumpulkan lebih dari 100+ penghargaan sejak saat itu, mengambil penghargaan framing di Inggris dan Australia juga.

Mendapatkan Gambar Lengkap dengan Nate Stout

Manajer Complete Pictures Inc., Nate Stout, menegaskan, "Saya bersemangat untuk setiap karya yang masuk ke ruang pamer kami karena memberi kami kesempatan untuk terhubung dengan orang lain pada tingkat yang sangat intim. Akibatnya, saya diundang untuk melihat foto orang lain. gairah dan bagaimana mereka ingin mengekspresikannya di ruang paling pribadi mereka. Hubungan manusiawi inilah yang membuat saya jatuh cinta pada pembingkaian dan kurasi sejak awal."


Pembingkai kami menginspirasi kami untuk belajar lebih banyak, berbuat lebih banyak, dan menjadi lebih banyak setiap hari. Baca tentang beberapa pelanggan kami yang luar biasa di bawah ini. Apakah Anda seorang pembuat bingkai dengan cerita untuk diceritakan atau pertanyaan untuk diajukan? Kami ingin mendengarnya di [email protected]

Frame De Art adalah Pahlawan Kami

Frame De Art, yang dimiliki oleh Brian Hart, saat ini merupakan toko bingkai non-rantai terbesar di Colorado. Mereka membingkai untuk perusahaan dan klien dari semua jenis, termasuk universitas lokal, tim olahraga besar dan atlet di Colorado, Gubernur, dan Walikota Denver Hancock.

Bingkai yang Lebih Baik Bekerja dengan Cara Baru

Perancang pemenang penghargaan Meg Glasgow menyesuaikan perusahaannya, Finer Frames, dengan normal baru dan mendukung komunitas dengan berbagai cara.

Jadilah Tanpa Batas dengan FrameWorks

FrameWorks dimiliki dan dioperasikan oleh Christine Sweeny dan Claire Lardner, keduanya Certified Picture Framers. Selama lebih dari 20 tahun, FrameWorks telah menyediakan solusi pembingkaian kustom profesional dan layanan desain untuk galeri, koleksi seni publik dan pribadi, seniman, bisnis, hotel, dan klien perumahan.

Naik ke Level Tertinggi dengan The Frame Workshop of Appleton

Suami dan istri, John dan Sarah Ranes, pertama kali membuka The Frame Workshop of Appleton, Inc. pada bulan September 1978 sebagai toko bingkai DIY dan Kustom, tetapi perlahan-lahan melakukan diversifikasi ke beberapa hadiah dan barang dekorasi rumah di tahun 1980-an. Saat ini bisnis ini merupakan perpaduan yang kuat antara pembingkaian kustom, hadiah, dekorasi rumah, dan dekorasi Natal Eropa yang didukung dengan kehadiran Online yang kuat sejak 2001. Pembingkaian kustom kreatif selalu mendominasi citra bisnis mereka saat mereka memenangkan penghargaan penyelesaian pembingkaian pertama di New Orleans pada tahun 1981 Itu merangsang masuk dan menang dan belajar karena mereka telah mengumpulkan lebih dari 100 penghargaan sejak saat itu, mengambil penghargaan framing di Inggris dan Australia juga.

Mendapatkan Gambar Lengkap dengan Nate Stout

Manajer Complete Pictures Inc., Nate Stout, menegaskan, "Saya bersemangat untuk setiap karya yang masuk ke ruang pamer kami karena memberi kami kesempatan untuk terhubung dengan orang lain pada tingkat yang sangat intim. Akibatnya, saya diundang untuk melihat foto orang lain. gairah dan bagaimana mereka ingin mengekspresikannya di ruang paling pribadi mereka. Hubungan manusiawi inilah yang membuat saya jatuh cinta pada pembingkaian dan kurasi sejak awal."


Craw RC (1979) Jejak dan penyebaran umum dalam biogeografi sebagai respons terhadap RM McDowall. Sistem Zool 28:99–107

Jellyman DJ (2002) Bob McDowall—kontribusinya pada ikan air tawar Selandia Baru. N.Z. J Mar Freshw Res 36:1–12

Jowett IG, Richardson J (2003) Komunitas ikan di sungai Selandia Baru dan hubungannya dengan variabel lingkungan. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 37:347–366

Leathwick JR, Rowe D, Richardson J, Elith J, Hastie T (2005) Menggunakan splines regresi adaptif multivariat untuk memprediksi distribusi ikan diadromous air tawar Selandia Baru. Freshwat Biol 50:2034–2052

McDowall RM (1964a) Afinitas dan derivasi fauna ikan air tawar Selandia Baru. Tuatara 12(2):59–67

McDowall RM (1968a) Usulan pengenalan bass hitam mulut besar Mikropterus salmoides (Lacepede) ke Selandia Baru. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 2:149–161

McDowall RM (1978a) Ikan air tawar Selandia Baru—panduan dan sejarah alam. Heinemann, Auckland, 230 hal

McDowall RM (1978b) Jejak dan penyebaran umum dalam biogeografi. Sistem Zool 27:88–104

McDowall RM (1988a) Diadromi pada ikan. Migrasi antara lingkungan air tawar dan laut. Croon Helm, London, 308 hal

McDowall RM (1990a) Ikan Air Tawar Selandia Baru: Sebuah Sejarah Alam Dan Panduan. Heinemann-Reed, Auckland, 553 hal

McDowall RM (2010) Ikan Air Tawar Selandia Baru. Dalam Noakes DLG (ed) Sebuah Biogeografi Sejarah dan Ekologis, Vol. 32. Seri Ikan dan Perikanan. Peloncat. 449 hal

McDowall RM (2011) ‘Ikawai. Ikan air tawar dalam Budaya dan Ekonomi Maori’. Pers Universitas Canterbury. 872 p

McDowall RM, Burridge CP (2011a) Osteologi dan hubungan ikan eutelostean bagian bawah air tawar selatan. Zoosyst Evol 87:5-183

McDowall RM, Taylor MJ (2000a) Indikator lingkungan kualitas habitat pada fauna ikan air tawar yang bermigrasi. Kelola Lingkungan 25:357–374

Makalah dan buku Bob McDowall

Allibone RM, Crowl TA, Holmes JM, King TM, McDowall RM, Townsend CR, Wallis GP (1996) Analisis isozim galaksi spesies (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) dari Sungai Taieri, Pulau Selatan, Selandia Baru: sebuah kompleks spesies terungkap. Biol J Linn Soc 57:107–127

Crow SK, McDowall RM (sedang dicetak) Perubahan ontogenetik dalam morfologi ikan galaxiid kepala pipih (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) di Pulau Selatan, Selandia Baru. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 45

Gross MR, Coleman RM, McDowall RM (1988) Produktivitas akuatik dan evolusi migrasi ikan diadromous. Sci 239:1291–1293

Jowett IG, Richardson J, McDowall RM (1996) Efek relatif habitat in-stream dan penggunaan lahan pada distribusi dan kelimpahan ikan di anak sungai Grey River, Selandia Baru. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 30:463–475

Kelly DJ, McDowall RM (2004) Invertebrata pesisir dan komunitas ikan. hal.25.1–25.14. Dalam: Harding JS, Mosley MP, Pearson CP, Sorrell BK (eds) Air Tawar Selandia Baru Masyarakat Hidrologi Selandia Baru: Masyarakat Limnologi Selandia Baru. Christchurch, N.Z

King CM, Roberts CD, Bell BD, Fordyce RE, Nicoll RS, Worthy TH, Paulin CD, Hitchmough RA, Keyes IW, Baker AN, Stewart AL, Hiller N, McDowall RM, Holdaway RN, McPhee RP, Schwarzhans W, Tennyson AJD , Rust S, McAdie I (2009) Filum Chordata: lancelet, ikan, amfibi, reptil, burung dan mamalia. Dalam: Gordon DP (ed) Inventarisasi keanekaragaman hayati Selandia Baru. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, hlm 432–551

Koehn JD, McDowall RM (2004) Spesies invasif: ikan dan perikanan: ikhtisar lokakarya, dulu dan sekarang. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 38:383–389

Lee DE, McDowall RM, Lindqvist JK (2007) Fosil galaksi dari endapan danau Miosen, Otago, Selandia Baru: catatan paling awal dari keluarga Belahan Bumi Selatan Galaxiidae (Teleostei). J Roy Soc NZ 37:109–130

Li J, McDowall RM (2010) Posisi filogenetik dari teka-teki Salamandroid Lepidogalaxias dengan komentar tentang ordo ikan euteleostean rendah. Mol Phylogenet Evol 57:932–936

McDowall RM (1962) Deskripsi ulang tentang pengganggu bersirip merah air tawar Gobiomorphus huttoni (Ogilby). Trans Roy Soc NZ Zool 3:3–15

McDowall RM (1964b) Afinitas dan derivasi fauna ikan air tawar Selandia Baru. Tuatara 12:59–67

McDowall RM (1964c) Bibliografi ikan air tawar asli Selandia Baru. Trans Roy Soc NZ Zool 5:175-182

McDowall RM (1964d) Pertimbangan atas pertanyaan “Apa itu ikan teri?”. Tuatara 12:134–146

McDowall RM (1964e) Studi tentang biologi pengganggu bersirip merah Gobiomorphus huttoni (Ogilby). I—Hubungan antara habitat dan spesies. Trans Roy Soc NZ Zool 4:175-182

McDowall RM (1965a) Komposisi tangkapan ikan teri Selandia Baru, 1964. New Zeal J Sci 8:285–300

McDowall RM (1965b) Catatan deskriptif dan taksonomi tentang Grahamichthys radiatus (Valenciennes), Eleotridae. Trans Roy Soc NZ Zool 7:51–56

McDowall RM (1965c) Spesies baru dari Retropinna dari Danau Omapere, Auckland Utara. Rec Dominion Mus 5:89–91

McDowall RM (1965d) Studi tentang biologi pengganggu bersirip merah Gobiomorphus huttoni (Ogilby). II—Pembiakan dan riwayat hidup. Trans Roy Soc NZ Zool 5:177–196

McDowall RM (1965e) Studi tentang biologi pengganggu bersirip merah Gobiomorphus huttoni (Ogilby). III—Studi makanan. Trans Roy Soc NZ Zool 5:233–254

McDowall RM (1966a) Pengamatan lebih lanjut tentang galaksi ikan teri dan hubungannya dengan distribusi Galaxiidae. Tuatara 14:12–18

McDowall RM (1966b) Panduan untuk mengidentifikasi ikan air tawar Selandia Baru. Tuatara 14:89–104

McDowall RM (1967a) Spesies ikan terkurung daratan baru dari genus galaksi dari Auckland Utara, Selandia Baru. Breviora 265:1–11

McDowall RM (1967b) Beberapa hal yang membingungkan dalam tata nama galaksi. Copeia 1967:841–843

McDowall RM (1968b) Penerapan istilah anadromous dan catadromous untuk ikan salmonid belahan bumi selatan. Copeia 1968:176–178

McDowall RM (1968c) Interaksi alam dan fauna asing Selandia Baru dan masalah pengenalan ikan. Trans Am Fish Soc 97: 1–11

McDowall RM (1968d) Kepulauan Oseanik dan endemisme. Sys Zool 17:346–350

McDowall RM (1968e) Usulan pengenalan Largemouth Black Bass Mikropterus salmoides (Lacepede) ke Selandia Baru. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 2:149–161

McDowall RM (1968f) Status dari Nesogalaxias neocaledonicus (Weber dan de Beaufort) (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Breviora 286: 1–8

McDowall RM (1968g) Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), ikan teri Selandia Baru. NZ Fish Res Bull 2, 84 pp

McDowall RM (1969a) Kepunahan dan endemisme pada burung darat Selandia Baru. Tuatara 17:1–12

McDowall RM (1969b) Seorang remaja dari Aplochiton Jenyns. Copeia 1969:631–632

McDowall RM (1969c) Irama bulan pada hewan air—sebuah tinjauan umum. Tuatara 17:133–144

McDowall RM (1970a) Mengomentari taksonomi baru dari Retropinna (Galaxioidei: Retropinnidae). NZ J Mar Freshw Res 4:312–324

McDowall RM (1970b) Ikan galaxiid dari Selandia Baru. Bull Mus Comp Zool 139:341–431

McDowall RM (1970c) Spesies kedua dari galaksi umum di Tasmania dan Selandia Baru (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Rec Dominion Mus 7:13–19

McDowall RM (1971a) Ikan keluarga Aplochitonidae. J Roy Soc NZ 1:31–52

McDowall RM (1971b) Ikan galaxiid dari Amerika Selatan. Zool J Linn Soc 50:33–73

McDowall RM (1971c) Identitas dari Eleotris radiata Valenciennes (Pisces: Eleotridae). Copeia 1971:731–732

McDowall RM (1972a) Ikan air tawar dan sungai Australia (oleh J.S. Lake)—resensi buku. Tuatara 19: 128–129

McDowall RM (1972b) Masalah spesies pada ikan air tawar, dan taksonomi populasi diadromous dan lacustrine dari Galaxias maculatus (Jennie). J Roy Soc NZ 2:325–367

McDowall RM (1972c) Taksonomi muara dan danau payau Retropinna dari Selandia Baru (Galaxioidei: Retropinnidae). J Roy Soc NZ 2:501–531

McDowall RM (1973a) Penunjukan lektotipe untuk Eleotris gobioides Valenciennes (Pisces, Eleotridae). Copeia 1973: 169–170

McDowall RM (1973b) Galaksia indicus Day, 1888—nomen dubium. J Roy Soc NZ 3:191–192

McDowall RM (1973c) Batasan genus Brachygalaxias Eigenmann, 1928 (Pisces: Galaxiidae). J Roy Soc NZ 3:193–197

McDowall RM (1973d) Usulan penghapusan nama Galaksia delfini Filipi 1895 (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Z.N.(S.) 1877. Banteng Zool Nom 30:88–89

McDowall RM (1973e) Hubungan dan taksonomi ikan torrent Selandia Baru, asuh Cheimarrichthys Haast (Pisces: Mugiloididae). J Roy Soc NZ 3:199–217

McDowall RM (1973f) Status galaxiid Afrika Selatan (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Provinsi Tanjung Ann Mus 9:91–101

McDowall RM (1973g) Zoogeografi dan taksonomi. Tuatara 20:88–96

McDowall RM (1974) Spesialisasi pada gigi-geligi genus keabu-abuan Selatan Prototroct (Galaxioidei: Prototroctidae). J Fish Biol 6:209–213

McDowall RM (1975a) Ikan Air Tawar dan Diadromous Selandia Baru karya Gerald Stokell dalam konteks karyanya yang lain yang diterbitkan, dengan bibliografi publikasinya. J Roy Soc NZ 5:219–223

McDowall RM (1975b) Revisi spesies Selandia Baru dari gobiomorphus (Pisces: Eleotridae). Rec Nat Mus NZ 1:1–32

McDowall RM (1976a) Ikan keluarga Prototroctidae (Salmoniformes). Aust J Mar Freshw Res 27:641–659

McDowall RM (1976b) Catatan tentang beberapa galaksi fosil dari Pliosen Selandia Baru. J Roy Soc N Z 6:17–22

McDowall RM (1976c) Peran muara dalam siklus hidup ikan di Selandia Baru. Proc NZ Ecol Soc 23:27–32

McDowall RM (1976d) Status Stromateus maculatus Forster—ikan dari New South Wales. J Roy Soc NZ 6:489–491

McDowall RM (1976e) Status taksonomi dari galaksi populasi di Rio Calle Calle, Chili (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Stud Neotr Fauna 11:173–177

McDowall RM (1977) Kemungkinan efek pada ikan dan pengayaan eukaliptus di hutan beech Selandia Baru. Hutan NZ J 22:45–52

McDowall RM (1978c) Ikan air tawar Selandia Baru: panduan dan sejarah alam. Pendidikan Heinemann, Auckland, 230 pp

McDowall RM (1978d) Jejak dan penyebaran umum dalam biogeografi. Sys Zool 27:88–104

McDowall RM (1978e) Genus dan spesies baru ikan galaxiid dari Australia (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). J Roy Soc NZ 8:115–124

McDowall RM (1978) Pola dalam derivasi fauna ikan Selandia Baru. hlm. 203–218 Prosiding simposium internasional tentang biogeografi kelautan dan evolusi di belahan bumi selatan, vol. 1, DSIR, Auckland, N.Z.

McDowall RM (1978g) Dimorfisme seksual dalam galaksiid Australia. Aust Zool 19:308–314

McDowall RM (1979a) Genus centrolophid Tubbia (Pisces: Stromateoidei). Copeia 1979:733–738

McDowall RM (1979b) Ikan keluarga Retropinnidae (Pisces: Salmoniformes)—revisi dan sinopsis taksonomi. J Roy Soc NZ 9:85-121

McDowall RM (ed) (1980a) Ikan air tawar di tenggara Australia (New South Wales, Victoria dan Tasmania). Reed, Sydney, 208 hal

McDowall RM (1980b) Mobil seri alam Selandia Baru—ikan air tawar. Reed, Wellington, 80 hal

McDowall RM (1980c) Charles Douglas, penjelajah: catatannya tentang ikan air tawar. J Roy Soc NZ 19:311–324

McDowall RM (1980d) Orang dewasa pertama dari Schedophilus maculatus Guenther, 1860 (Stromateoidei: Centrolophidae). J Roy Soc NZ 10:141-151

McDowall RM (1980e) Ikan air tawar dan lempeng tektonik di Pasifik barat daya. Palaeog Palaeoc Palaeoe 31:337–351

McDowall RM (1980f) Seriolella caerulea Guichenot, 1848 di perairan Selandia Baru (Stromateoidei: Centrolophidae). J Roy Soc NZ 10:65–74

McDowall RM (1981a) Kata Pengantar. hlm. 197. Dalam: Berra TM (ed) Atlas persebaran famili ikan air tawar dunia. Pers Universitas Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska

McDowall RM (1981b) Nomina nuda dan ketersediaan nama kadal Komentar. NZ J Zool 8:127–128

McDowall RM (1981c) Hubungan ikan air tawar Australia. hal. 1253–1273. Di dalam: R.A. Keast (ed.) Biogeografi Ekologi Australia. Mono Biol 41:1253–1273

McDowall RM (1981d) Sistem saluran pori sirip sub-dorsal di Schedophilus maculatus Gunther (Pisces: Centrolophidae). Copeia 1981:492–494

McDowall RM (1982) Ikan centrolophid dari Selandia Baru (Pisces: Stromateoidei). J Roy Soc NZ 12:103-142

McDowall RM (1983) La faune exotique des poissons d'eau douce de Nouvelle Zelande son histoire et son impact. Comp Rend Soc Biogeo 59:223–230

McDowall RM (1984a) Ikan trout di perairan Selandia Baru: biologi dan pengelolaan ikan trout di danau dan sungai Selandia Baru. Lahan Basah, Wellington, 120 pp

McDowall RM (1984b) Buku ikan teri Selandia Baru. Reed, Wellington, 210 pp

McDowall RM (1984c) Merancang cagar alam untuk ikan air tawar di Selandia Baru. J Roy Soc NZ 14:17–27

McDowall RM (1984d) Ikan eksotis: pengalaman Selandia Baru. Dalam: Courtenay WR, Stauffer JR (eds) Distribusi, biologi dan pengelolaan ikan eksotik. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, AS, hlm 200–214

McDowall RM (1984e) Galaxiidae. hal. 126–127. Dalam: Daget J, Gosse JP, Thys van den Audenaerde DFE (eds) Daftar Periksa Ikan Air Tawar Afrika. Orstom, Paris

McDowall RM (1984) Salmoniform air tawar belahan bumi selatan: perkembangan dan hubungan. hal.150-153. Dalam: Moser GH (ed) Ontogeni dan sistematika ikan, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists

McDowall RM (1985) Muara sungai dalam siklus hidup spesies ikan Selandia Baru. hal. 557–570. Dalam: Yanez-Arancibia A (ed) Ekologi komunitas ikan di muara dan laguna pesisir. Ciudad Universitaria, Meksiko, UNAM Press Mexico

McDowall RM (1987a) Resensi buku: Biologi hinggap dan ikan terkait. Oleh J.F. Craig, 1987. 333 hal. Croom Helm Ltd. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 21:647–8

McDowall RM (1987b) Dampak ikan eksotik pada fauna asli. Dalam: Viner AB (ed) Perairan Pedalaman Selandia Baru. DSIR, Wellington, N.Z, hal 333–347

McDowall RM (1987c) Terjadinya dan distribusi diadromi pada ikan. Am Fish Soc Symp 1:1–13

McDowall RM (1987d) Zoogeografi—ikan asli. Dalam: Viner AB (ed) Perairan Pedalaman Selandia Baru. DSIR, Wellington, N.Z, hlm 291–306

McDowall RM (1988b) Diadromy pada ikan: migrasi antara lingkungan air tawar dan laut. Croom Helm, London, 308 hal

McDowall RM (1990b) Ikan air tawar Selandia Baru: sejarah alam dan panduan. Heinemann Reed, Auckland, 553 hal

McDowall RM (1990c) Mengisi kekosongan—introduksi ikan eksotis ke Selandia Baru. Dalam: Pollard DA (ed) Ikan yang diintroduksi dan ditranslokasikan serta efek ekologisnya. Masyarakat Australia untuk Biologi Ikan, Pulau Magnetik, Townsville, Queensland, hlm 69–82

McDowall RM (1990d) Ikan air tawar dan perikanan Selandia Baru: Eldorado pemancing. Rev Aquatic Sci 2:281–341

McDowall RM (1990e) Ketika ikan galaxiid dan salmonid bertemu- reuni keluarga di Selandia Baru. J Ikan Biol 37:35–43

McDowall RM (1991a) Penelitian perikanan air tawar di Selandia Baru: proses, proyek, dan manusia. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 25:393–413

McDowall RM (1991b) The ii mungkin memilikinya di akhir—patronim harus diubah hanya jika terbukti salah. NZ Natur Sci 18:25–29

McDowall RM (1992a) Diadromy: Asal usul dan definisi terminologi. Copeia 1992:248–251

McDowall RM (1992b) Perubahan iklim global dan ikan dan perikanan: apa yang mungkin terjadi di kepulauan samudera beriklim sedang seperti Selandia Baru. Geo-J 28:29–37

McDowall RM (1992c) Masalah khusus untuk konservasi ikan diadromous: sudut pandang. Aquat Kontra 2:351–355

McDowall RM (1993a) Implikasi diadromi untuk penataan dan pemodelan komunitas ikan sungai di Selandia Baru. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 27:453–462

McDowall RM (1993b) Ikan trout asli Amerika Utara bagian barat: [resensi buku]. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 27:382–384

McDowall RM (1993c) Pencarian Selandia Baru untuk akhir pelangi: [surat kepada editor]. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 27:379–380

McDowall RM (1993d) Sebuah nenek moyang laut baru-baru ini untuk ikan diadromous? Terkadang ya, tetapi kebanyakan tidak! Ikan Biol Lingkungan 37:329–335

McDowall RM (1994a) Gamekeepers for the nation: kisah masyarakat aklimatisasi Selandia Baru 1861–1990. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, 508 hal

McDowall RM (1994b) Koreksi lokalitas tipe smelt Stokell, Stokellia anisodon (Stokell) 1941 (Pisces: Retropinnidae). J Roy Soc NZ 24:261–265

McDowall RM (1994c) Bentuk dan warna khas ikan torrent remaja, asuh Cheimarrichthys (Pisces:Pinguipedidae). NZ J Mar Freshw Res 28:385–390

Keluarga McDowall RM (1994) Centrolophidae. Ikan di pantai selatan Australia 832–838

Keluarga McDowall RM (1994) Galaxiidae. Ikan di pantai selatan Australia: 234–238

Keluarga McDowall RM (1994) Nomeidae. Ikan di pantai selatan Australia: 838–843

Keluarga McDowall RM (1994) Prototroctidae. Ikan di pantai selatan Australia: 233

Keluarga McDowall RM (1994) Retropinnidae. Ikan di pantai selatan Australia: 232–233

McDowall RM (1994i) Perumpamaan ikan dalam seni 70: Ukiran Maori Polinesia dari mitos Maui. Lingkungan Biol Ikan 41:330

McDowall RM (1994j) Tentang ukuran dan pertumbuhan ikan air tawar. Ikan Ecol Freshw 3:67–79

McDowall RM (1994k) Asal usul salmon chinook Selandia Baru, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Ikan Mar Wahyu 56: 1–7

McDowall RM (1994l) Salmon dan sekutunya. Dalam: Paxton JR, Eschmeyer WN (eds) Ensiklopedia ikan. NSW University Press, Kensington, NSW, hlm 113–118

McDowall RM (1994m) Pengganggu Tarndale, Gobiomorphus alpinus Stokell (Pisces, Eleotridae) ditinjau kembali dan dideskripsikan ulang. J Roy Soc NZ 24:117–124

McDowall RM (1995) Pulsa musiman dalam migrasi ikan diadromous Selandia Baru dan dampak potensial dari penutupan muara sungai. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 29:517–526

McDowall RM (ed) (1996a) Ikan air tawar di tenggara Australia. Reed, Sydney, 247 hal

McDowall RM (1996) Ayson, Lake Falconer 1855–1927: Buruh tani, inspektur kelinci, petugas aklimatisasi, inspektur perikanan. hlm. 24–25 The Dictionary of New Zealand biografi. Jilid tiga, 1901–1920, Auckland University Press, Auckland

McDowall RM (1996c) Diadromy dan perakitan dan pemulihan komunitas ikan sungai: pandangan hilir. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:219–236

McDowall RM (1996d) Etimologi dari beberapa nama umum untuk ikan air tawar Selandia Baru. Pacific Sci 50:117–121

McDowall RM (1996e) Ikan yang terancam punah di dunia: Prototroctes oxyrhynchus Gunther 1870 (Prototroctidae). Lingkungan Biol Ikan 46:60

McDowall RM (1996f) Vulkanisme dan biogeografi ikan air tawar di Pulau Utara Selandia Baru. J Biogeol 23:139–148

McDowall RM (1997a) Garis samping tambahan di beberapa galaksi Selandia Baru dan Australia (Teleostei: Galaxiidae). Ikan Ecol Freshw 6:217–224

McDowall RM (1997b) Afinitas, klasifikasi generik dan biogeografi ikan lumpur Australia dan Selandia Baru (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). Rec Aust Mus 49:121–137

McDowall RM (1997c) Evolusi diadromi pada ikan (ditinjau kembali) dan tempatnya dalam analisis filogenetik. Rev Fish Biol Fish 7:443–462

McDowall RM (1997d) Tipe vegetasi asli dan sebaran kokopu rahang pendek, Galaxias postvectis (Teleostei: Galaxiidae), di Selandia Baru. NZ J Zool 24:243–255

McDowall RM (1997e) Catatan tentang status konservasi pengganggu raksasa, Gobiomorphus gobioides (Teleostei: Eleotridae). J Roy Soc NZ 27:163-172

McDowall RM (1997f) Dua spesies baru lebih lanjut dari galaksi (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) dari Sungai Taieri, selatan Selandia Baru. J Roy Soc NZ 27:199–217

McDowall RM (1998a) Didorong oleh diadromi: perannya dalam biogeografi historis dan ekologis fauna ikan air tawar Selandia Baru. It J Zool 65:73–85

McDowall RM (1998b) Melawan arus: keterkaitan hilir-hulu dalam ekologi fauna ikan diadromous di sungai West Coast Selandia Baru. Freshwat Biol 40:111-122

McDowall RM (1998c) Hubungan filogenetik dan divergensi ekomorfologi pada spesies simpatrik dan alopatrik Paragalaxias (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) di danau Tasmania dataran tinggi. Ikan Biol Lingkungan 53:235–257

McDowall RM (1999) Resensi buku: Migrasi ikan dan bypass ikan. Diedit oleh M. Jungwirth, S. Schmutz dan S. Weiss. Buku Berita Perikanan, Oxford, 1998. J Fish Biol 54:1137–1138

McDowall RM (1999b) Kerangka ekor di galaksi dan genera sekutu (Teleostei: Galaxiidae). Copeia 1999:932–939

McDowall RM (1999c) Diadromi dan keragaman genetik pada ikan Nearctic dan Palearctic. Mol Ecol 8:527–528

McDowall RM (1999d) Berbagai jenis diadromi: berbagai jenis masalah konservasi. ICES J Mar Sci 56:410–413

McDowall RM (1999e) Ikan air tawar sebagai indikator kesehatan habitat di Selandia Baru: implikasi dari migrasi. Dalam: Holt A, Dickinson K, Kearsley GW (eds) Indikator lingkungan: Prosiding simposium. University of Otago, Dunedin, Pusat Penelitian Kebijakan dan Manajemen Lingkungan, hlm 83–84

McDowall RM (1999f) Ikan poeciliid liar lebih lanjut di perairan segar Selandia Baru, dengan kunci spesies. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 33:673–682

McDowall RM (2000a) Panduan lapangan Reed untuk ikan air tawar Selandia Baru. Reed, Auckland, 225 pp

McDowall RM (2000b) Biogeografi ikan air tawar beriklim dingin selatan: bukti dari fauna makroparasit. J Biogeol 27:1221–1229

McDowall RM (2000c) Biogeografi Torrentfish Selandia Baru, Cheimarrichthys asuh (Teleostei: Pinguipedidae): distribusi yang sebagian besar didorong oleh ekologi dan perilaku. Lingkungan Biol Ikan 58:119-131

McDowall RM (2000d) Gerald Stokell 1890–1972: ahli hortikultura, ahli ikan. hal 499–500. Dalam: Kamus biografi Selandia Baru. Volume lima, 1941-1960, jilid 5. Allen dan Unwin: Departemen. Urusan Dalam Negeri, Wellington

McDowall RM (2000e) Identitas Smith of Galaxias smithi. Falk Adalah J 7:3–7

McDowall RM (2001a) Seri alam Reed Selandia Baru—ikan air tawar Selandia Baru. Reed, Auckland, 95 hal

McDowall RM (2001b) Anadromi dan homing: dua ciri sejarah kehidupan dengan sinergi adaptif pada ikan salmonid? Perikanan Ikan 2:78–85

McDowall RM (2001c) Diadromi, keragaman dan divergensi: implikasi untuk proses spesiasi pada ikan. Perikanan Ikan 2:278–285

McDowall RM (2001d) Mendapatkan ukuran habitat ikan air tawar di Selandia Baru. Manajemen Kesehatan Aquat Ecosys 4:343–355

McDowall RM (2001e) Invertebrata sungai Selandia Baru: ekologi dan implikasinya bagi pengelolaan: ekologi invertebrata sungai menjadi dewasa (resensi buku). NZ Sci Rev 58:29–30

McDowall RM (2001f) Asal usul ikan salmon: laut, air tawar. atau tidak keduanya? Rev Fish Biol Fish 11:171–179

McDowall RM (2001g) Parioglossus (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Microdesmidae) di Selandia Baru. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 35:165-172

McDowall RM (2001h) Hitungan sinar sirip ekor utama: karakter mendasar pada ikan galaxioid. NZ J Zool 28:395–405

McDowall RM (2002a) Mengumpulkan bukti untuk biogeografi penyebaran ikan air tawar beriklim dingin selatan. J Biogeol 29:207–220

McDowall RM (2002b) Resensi buku: Migrasi ikan air tawar, oleh M C. Lucas dan E. Baras. 420 pp Blackwell Science, Oxford, 2001. J Fish Biol 60:1613–1614

McDowall RM (2002c) Centrolophidae - medusafishes (ruffs, barrelfishes). hlm. 3767–3770 Sumber daya laut yang hidup di Pasifik tengah bagian barat. Fao, Roma

McDowall RM (2002d) Berapa banyak spesies? galaksi ada di afrika selatan? Ikhtos 67:10–11

McDowall RM (2002e) Asal dan status dari Galaxias smithii Regan (1905) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae). J Nat Hist 36:1129–1134

McDowall RM (2003a) Resensi buku: Ikan Selandia Baru: panduan lengkap, oleh C. Paulin, C. Roberts, A. Stewart, dan P. McMillan. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 37:219–220

McDowall RM (2003b) Biogeografi Hawaii dan fauna ikan air tawar di pulau tersebut. J Biogeol 30:207–220

McDowall RM (2003c) Dampak salmonid yang diperkenalkan pada galaksiid asli di aliran dataran tinggi Selandia Baru: tampilan baru pada masalah lama. Trans Am Fish Soc 132:229–238

McDowall RM (2003d) Untuk membela pria yang peduli. Tren Ecol Evol 18:610–611

McDowall RM (2003e) Protokol untuk menghitung sinar ekor utama ikan. NZ J Zool 30:259–291

McDowall RM (2003f) Salmon dan sekutunya. Dalam: Cogger HC, Eschmeyer WN, Paxton JR, Zweifel RG (eds) Ekologi hewan: reptil, amfibi dan ikan. Fog City Press, San Francisco, hlm 335–341

McDowall RM (2003g) Bayangan dan diadromi: implikasi untuk ekologi, evolusi dan biogeografi. Am Fish Soc Symp 35:11–23

McDowall RM (2003h) Variasi jumlah tulang belakang pada ikan galaxiid (Teleostei: Galaxiidae): warisan sejarah kehidupan, garis lintang dan panjang. Ikan Biol Lingkungan 66:361–381

McDowall RM (2003i) Variation in vertebral number in galaxiid fishes how fishes swim, and a possible explanation for pleomerism. Rev Fish Biol Fish 13:247–263

McDowall RM (2004a) Ancestry and amphidromy in island freshwater fish faunas. Fish Fisheries 5:78–85

McDowall RM (2004b) Book review: Gunn, J.M., Steedman, R.J. and R.A. Ryder (ed.) Boreal shield watersheds—lake trout ecosystems in a changing environment. Lewis, Boca Raton 501 pp. Prog Phys Geog 28:608–609

McDowall RM (2004c) The Chatham Islands endemic galaxiid: a Neochanna mudfish (Teleostei: Galaxiidae). J Roy Soc NZ 34:315–331

McDowall RM (2004d) Letter to the Editor: Protocols for citing the authority for zoological names: comment. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 38:95–196

McDowall RM (2004e) Shoot first, and then ask questions: a look at aquarium fish imports and invasiveness in New Zealand. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 38:503–510

McDowall RM (2004f) What biogeography is: a place for process. J Biogeol 31:345–351

McDowall RM (2005a) [Book Review]: Freshwater fishes of north-eastern Australia. By B. Pusey, M. Kennard, and A. Arthington. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 39:1196–1197

McDowall RM (2005b) Diadromy, history and ecology: a question of scale. In: Dufour SP, Prévost E, Rochard E, Williot P (eds) Fish and Diadromy in Europe (ecology, management, conservation). Springer, Bordeaux, France, pp 5–14

McDowall RM (2005) Ernst Mayr: [obituary]. pp. 138–141 Ann Rep Roy Soc NZ 2005

McDowall RM (2005d) Falkland Islands biogeography: converging trajectories in the South Atlantic Ocean. J Biogeol 32:49–62

McDowall RM (2005e) Falklands: fact, fiction or fiddlesticks: a place for process. J Biogeol 32:2187–2187

McDowall RM (2005f) Historical biogeography of the New Zealand freshwater crayfishes (Parastacidae, Paranephrops spp.): restoration of a refugial survivor? NZ J Zool 32:55–77

McDowall RM (2005g) Letter to the Editor Comment: American Fisheries Society makes changes in the end. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 39:1199–1200

McDowall RM (2005h) Making a living in Red Pond: a snapshot of the diet of a populaion of Aplochiton zebra (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) at the Falkland Islands. NZ J Zool 32:23–27

McDowall RM (2006a) Crying wolf, crying foul, or crying shame: alien salmonids and a biodiversity crisis in the southern cool-temperate galaxioid fishes? Rev Fish Biol Fish 16:233–422

McDowall RM (2006b) Fish, fish habitats and fisheries in New Zealand. Aquat Ecosys Health Manag 9:391–405

McDowall RM (2007) Hawaiian freshwater fishes: the role of amphidromy in history, ecology and conservation biology. pp. 3–9. In: Evenhuis NL and Fitzsimons JM (ed) Biology of Hawaiian streams and estuaries

McDowall RM (2007b) On amphidromy, a distinct form of diadromy in aquatic organisms. Fish Fisheries 8:1–13

McDowall RM (2008a) Jordan’s and other ecogeographic rules, and the vertebral number in fishes. J Biogeol 35:501–508

McDowall RM (2008b) Process and pattern in the biogeography of New Zealand—a global microcosm? J Biogeol 35:197–212

McDowall RM (2008c) Why are so many boreal freshwater fishes anadromous? Confronting `conventional wisdom’. Fish Fisheries 9:208–213

McDowall RM (2009a) Concluding remarks on the Halifax symposium. Am Fish Soc Symp 69:813–821

McDowall RM (2009b) Early hatch: a strategy for safe downstream larval transport in amphidromous gobies. Rev Fish Biol Fish 19:1–8

McDowall RM (2009c) An ichthyological lucky dip, or “What freshwater fish lives where?”: Review of: T. M. Berra, Freshwater fish distribution. Environ Biol Fish 4:147–151

McDowall RM (2009) Kenneth (Radway) Allen MSc DSc Cambridge FRSNZ. Roy. Soc. N.Z. Yrbk 2009

McDowall RM (2009e) Making the best of two worlds: diadromy in the evolution, ecology and conservation of aquatic organisms. Am Fish Soc Symp 69:1–22

McDowall RM (2010b) New Zealand freshwater fishes: an historical and ecological biogeography. Springer, Dordrecht, 449 pp

McDowall RM (2010c) Biogeography in the life and literature of John Muir: a ceaseless search for pattern. J Biogeol 37:1629–1636

McDowall RM (2010d) Why be amphidromous: expatrial dispersal and the place of source and sink population dynamics? Rev Fish Biol Fish 20:87–100

McDowall RM (2011b) Ikawai: Freshwater fishes in Mäori culture and economy. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, 872 pp

McDowall RM (2011c) Dispersal ability: animal. In: Simberloff D, Rejmánek M (eds) Encyclopedia of biological invasions. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 54–159

McDowall RM, Allibone RM (1994) Possible competitive exclusion of common river Galaxias (Galaxias vulgaris) by koaro (G. brevipinnis) following impoundment of the Waipori River, Otago, New Zealand. J Roy Soc NZ 24:161–168

McDowall RM, Allibone RM (2004) Threatened fishes of the world: Galaxias cobitinis McDowall and Waters, 2002 (Galaxiidae). Env Biol Fish 70:42

McDowall RM, Banister KE (1985) Pikes, salmon, argentines. pp 44–59. In: Banister KE, Campbell A (eds) The encyclopedia of underwater life. Allen Unwin, London, 287 pp

McDowall RM, Banister KE (1986) Pikes, salmon, argentines. pp 52–67. In: Banister KE, Campbell A (eds) All the worlds’ animals—fishes. Torster Books, New York, 158 pp

McDowall RM, Burridge CP (2011b) Osteology and relationships of the southern freshwater lower euteleostean fishes. Zoosyst Evol 87:7–185

McDowall RM, Chadderton WL (1999) Galaxias gollumoides (Teleostei: Galaxiidae), a new fish species from Stewart Island, with notes on other non-migratory freshwater fishes present on the island. J Roy Soc NZ 29:77–88

McDowall RM, Charteris SC (2006) The possible adaptive advantages of terrestrial egg deposition in some fluvial diadromous galaxiid fishes (Teleostei: Galaxidiae). Fish Fisheries 7:153–164

McDowall RM, David BO (2008) Gobiopterus in New Zealand (Teleostei: Gobiidae), with observations on sexual dimorphism. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 42:325–331

McDowall RM, Eldon GA (1980) The ecology of whitebait migrations: (Galaxiidae: Galaxias spp.). NZ Fish Res Bull 20, 170 pp

McDowall RM, Eldon GA (1996) Threatened fishes of the world: Neochanna burrowsius (Phillipps, 1926) (Galaxiidae). Environ Biol Fish 47:190

McDowall RM, Eldon GA (1997) Reproductive cycling and fecundity estimation in the upland bully. J Fish Biol 51:164–179

McDowall RM, Frankenberg RS (1981) The Galaxiid fishes of Australia (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Rec Aust Mus 33:443–605

McDowall RM, Fulton W (1978a) A further new species of Paragalaxias from Tasmania (Pisces: Galaxiidae) with a revised key to species. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 29:659–665

McDowall RM, Fulton W (1978b) A revision of the genus Paragalaxias Scott (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). Aust J Mar Freshw Res 29:93–108

McDowall RM, Gosztonyi AE (1974) Zoogeography of Galaxias maculatus in South America. Copeia 1974:978–979

McDowall RM, Kelly GR (1999) Date and age at migration in juvenile giant kokopu, Galaxias argenteus (Gmelin) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) and estimation of spawning season. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 33:263–270

McDowall RM, Lee DE (2005) Probable perciform fish scales from a Miocene freshwater lake deposit, Central Otago, New Zealand. J Roy Soc NZ 35:339–344

McDowall RM, McIntosh A (2008) Freshwater fishes. In: Winterbourn MJ, Knox GA, Burrows C, Marsden ID (eds) The Natural history of Canterbury. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, pp 616–650

McDowall RM, Nakaya K (1987) Identity of the galaxioid fishes of the genus Aplochiton Jenyns from southern Chile. Jpn J Ichthyol 34:377–383

McDowall RM, Nakaya K (1988) Morphological divergence in the two species of Aplochiton Jenyns (Salmoniformes: Aplochitonidae): a generalist and specialist. Copeia 1988:233–236

McDowall RM, Pankhurst NW (2005) Loss of negative eye-size allometry in a population of Aplochiton zebrai (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) from the Falkland Islands. NZ J Zool 32:17–22

McDowall RM, Pole M (1997) A large galaxiid fossil (Teleostei) from the Miocene of Central Otago, New Zealand. J Roy Soc NZ 27:193–198

McDowall RM, Pusey BJ (1983) Lepidogalaxias salamandroides Mees—A redescription, with natural history notes. Rec West Aust Mus 11:11–23

McDowall RM, Rowe DK (1996) Threatened fishes of the world: Galaxias gracilis McDowall,1967 (Galaxiidae). Environ Biol Fish 46:280

McDowall RM, Stevens MI (2007) Taxonomic status of the Tarndale bully Gobiomorphus alpinus (Teleostei: Eleotridae), revisited-again. J Roy Soc NZ 37:15–29

McDowall RM, Stewart AL (1997) Further specimens of Agrostichthys parkeri (Teleostei: Regalecidae) with natural history notes. In: Séret B, Sire JY (eds) 5th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference, Société Française d’Ichtyologie: Institut de recherche pour le dévelopment. Nouméa, New Caledonia, pp 165–176

McDowall RM, Suren AM (1995) Emigrating larvae of koaro, Galaxias brevipinnis Gunther (Teleostei: Galaxiidae), from the Otira River, New Zealand. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 29:271–275

McDowall RM, Taylor MJ (2000b) Environmental indicators of habitat quality in a migratory freshwater fish fauna. Environ Manag 25:357–374

McDowall RM, Wallis GP (1996) Description and redescription of Galaxias species (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) from Otago and Southland. J Roy Soc NZ 26:401–427

McDowall RM, Waters JM (2002) A new longjaw Galaxias species (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) from the Kauru River, North Otago, New Zealand. NZ J Zool 29:41–52

McDowall RM, Waters JM (2003) A new species of Galaxias (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) from the Mackenzie Basin, New Zealand. J Roy Soc NZ 33:675–691

McDowall RM, Waters JM (2004) Phylogenetic relationships in a small group of diminutive galaxiid fishes and the evolution of sexual dimorphism. J Roy Soc NZ 34:23–57

McDowall RM, Whitaker AM (1975) The freshwater fishes. In: Kuschel G (ed) Biogeography and ecology in New Zealand. Junk, The Hague, pp 277–299

McDowall RM, Allibone RM, Chadderton WL (2005) Falkland Islands freshwater fishes: a natural history. Falklands Conservation, London, 102 pp

McDowall RM, Robertson DA, Saito R (1975) Occurrence of galaxiid larvae and juveniles in the sea. N.Z. J Mar Freshw Res 9:1–9

McDowall RM, Hopkins CL, Flain M (1976) Fishes. In: Jolly VH, Brown JMA (eds) New Zealand lakes. Auckland University Press, Auckland, pp 292–307

McDowall RM, Graynoth E, Eldon GA (1977) The occurrence and distribution of fishes in streams draining the beech forests of the West Coast and Southland, South Island, New Zealand. J Roy Soc NZ 7:405–424

McDowall RM, Clark BM, Wright GJ, Northcote TG (1993) Trans-2-cis-6-nonadienal: the cause of cucumber odor [sic] in Osmerid and Retropinnid smelts. Trans Am Fish Soc 122:144–147

McDowall RM, Mitchell CP, Brothers EB (1994) Age at migration from the sea of juvenile Galaxias in New Zealand (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Bull Mar Sci 54:385–402

McDowall RM, Main MR, West DW, Lyon GL (1996) Terrestrial and benthic foods in the diet of the shortjawed kokopu, Galaxias postvectis Clarke (Teleostei: Galaxiidae). NZ J Mar Freshw Res 30:257–269

McDowall RM, Jellyman DJ, Dijkstra LH (1998a) Arrival of an Australian anguillid eel in New Zealand: an example of transoceanic dispersal. Environ Biol Fish 51:1–6

McDowall RM, Paxton JR, Eschmeyer WN (1998b) Salmons and their allies. In: Paxton JR, Eschmeyer WN (eds) Encyclopedia of fishes. Academic, San Diego, CA, pp 113–117

McDowall RM, Allibone RM, Chadderton WL (2001) Issues for the conservation and management of Falkland Islands freshwater fishes. Aquat Conservat 11:473–486

McDowall RM, Kennedy EM, Alloway BV (2006a) A fossil southern grayling, genus Prototroctes, from the Pleistocene of north-eastern New Zealand (Teleostei: Retropinnidae). J Roy Soc NZ 36:27–36

McDowall RM, Kennedy EM, Lindqvist JK, Lee DE, Alloway BV, Gregory MR (2006b) Probable Gobiomorphus fossils from the Miocene and Pleistocene of New Zealand (Teleostei: Eleotridae). J Roy Soc NZ 36:97–109

McIntosh AR, McDowall RM (2004) Fish communities in rivers and streams. pp. 17.1–17.9. In: Harding JS, Mosley MP, Pearson CP, Sorrell BK (eds) Freshwaters of New Zealand. New Zealand Hydrological Society: New Zealand Limnological Society, Christchurch

Metcalfe JD, Arnold G, McDowall RM (2002) Migration. In: Hart PJB, Reynolds JD (eds) Handbook of fish biology and fisheries Blackwell Publishing. England, Oxford, pp 175–199

Riehl R, McDowall RM, Greven H (2002) Zur biologie von drei Galaxiiden-Arten Neuseelands. Verh Aquarienfische 2:123–129

Saruwatari T, Oohara I, Orr JW, Kobayashi T, McDowall RM (2000) Phylogeny of lower Euteleosts reconstructed from mtDNA analysis. DNA Polym 8:96–101

Waters JM, McDowall RM (2002) Phylogenetic placement of retropinnid fishes: Data set incongruence can be reduced by using asymmetric character state transformation costs. Sys Biol 51:432–449

Waters JM, McDowall RM (2005) Phylogenetics of the australasian mudfishes: Evolution of an eel-like body plan. Mol Phylogenet Evol 37:417–425


The discovery of the vitamins

The discovery of the vitamins was a major scientific achievement in our understanding of health and disease. In 1912, Casimir Funk originally coined the term "vitamine". The major period of discovery began in the early nineteenth century and ended at the mid-twentieth century. The puzzle of each vitamin was solved through the work and contributions of epidemiologists, physicians, physiologists, and chemists. Rather than a mythical story of crowning scientific breakthroughs, the reality was a slow, stepwise progress that included setbacks, contradictions, refutations, and some chicanery. Research on the vitamins that are related to major deficiency syndromes began when the germ theory of disease was dominant and dogma held that only four nutritional factors were essential: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and minerals. Clinicians soon recognized scurvy, beriberi, rickets, pellagra, and xerophthalmia as specific vitamin deficiencies, rather than diseases due to infections or toxins. Experimental physiology with animal models played a fundamental role in nutrition research and greatly shortened the period of human suffering from vitamin deficiencies. Ultimately it was the chemists who isolated the various vitamins, deduced their chemical structure, and developed methods for synthesis of vitamins. Our understanding of the vitamins continues to evolve from the initial period of discovery.


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Within the Burns Federation he was the promoter of the Burns Chronicle for many years and served as Secretary of the Federation from its formation until 1906 when he was elected to the office of Vice-President. The following year he was elected President of The Burns Federation, a fitting tribute to his invaluable contribution to the organisation.

An example of his keen sense of business acumen and committee handling is to be found in the records of the formation of the Burns Federation. At the inaugural meeting held at Kilmarnock in July 1885 the seniority on the Roll of Clubs was discussed. Captain Sneddon agreed that the London Burns Club should be allocated the prestigious Number 1 , since that was where the initial idea had been raised. From all accounts this proposal did not necessarily meet with the approval of the Kilmarnock members. There being 14 members from Kilmarnock present, had it gone to a vote they would have won hands down or perhaps we should say "Hands Up". However, the decision being accepted, all was revealed at the next meeting, when the Roll was called out and Captain Sneddon started with Kilmarnock Burns Club No. 0, London Burns Club No. 1. Although there was no alteration from the original decision there was a dramatic alteration to the order on the Roll of Clubs.

Alas, all good things come to an end and whilst on a trip to South Africa, to visit his son, he took ill and died on 28th May 1910.

David Mackay was a native of Kilmarnock but his parents came from Sutherland in the North of Scotland. His uncle was the famous local historian Archibald McKay who, amongst many other books, produced a much sought after History of Kilmarnock. David Mackay began his business career with Messrs William Rankin & Sons, Wine Merchants, in King Street, Kilmarnock. Later he transferred to Messrs William Wallace & Co., Wine Merchants, becoming their principal Manager. He was also much involved with community council work and served as Treasurer of Kilmarnock Town Council for three years and Provost for six years from 1895-1901. It is recorded that David Mackay was one of the most popular Provosts that Kilmarnock had had at that time. A leading promoter of the adoption, by Kilmarnock, of the Public Libraries Act, it was due to his enthusiasm that Mr James Dick, Greenhead Works, Glasgow, (a native of Kilmarnock), gifted the Dick Institute Library and Museum to the town. He was also Chairman of the Burgh School Board. An excellent artist himself he was excelled by two of his brothers in that field, R. S. Mackay in portraiture and James M. Mackay in landscapes. Part of his obituary states:-"A gentleman of fine presence, of highly intellectual gifts, of genial
disposition, and an eloquent platform speaker, Provost Mackay rendered conspicuously good service to the community, and for years was in the forefront of every movement that was calculated to promote the happiness and welfare of the people."

Provost David Mackay was President of the Burns Federation from 1899 - 1906.

Now these three gentlemen were indeed of the highest calibre, very much servants to their fellow men, and willing to put their reputations to the test by public activities. They served well and were rewarded not in financial terms but with great personal satisfaction.

I would also like to draw to your attention that each of them was an industrious and enthusiastic Freemason. To you and I the duties and responsibilitie s of our daily lives reflect our Masonic teachings and to Colin Rae Brown, Captain David Sneddon and Provost David Mackay it was obviously no different.

A brief resume of their individual Masonic activities are:

Brother Colin Rae Brown was initiated into Lodge Greenock St John's, No. 175 in 1844, the same year that he was President of Greenock Burns Club. The records of the Lodge do not show any involvement as an Office-bearer or Degree worker. When the Lodge celebrated its Centenary in 1890 Brother Rae Brown composed a Song entitled "A Hundred Years Ago". A copy of this is to be found in the Lodge History Book compiled by Brother William McKillop P.M. Rae Brown's association with the Lodge covered a period of 53 years.

Brother Captain David Sneddon was a member of Lodge St Marnock, No. 109 having affiliated to the Lodge in 1882, serving as Master in 1884, 1885 and 1893. The name and number of his Mother Lodge is unknown. He was appointed as the first official Provincial Grand Secretary of Ayrshire and served from 1890 till 1895 under the Provincial Grand Mastership of Brother The Hon. Thomas Cochrane M.P, Master of Lodge Mother Kilwinning and as such the Provincial Grand Master for Ayrshire. He was an active member of Grand Committee of the Grand Lodge of Scotland and served as Junior Grand Deacon in 1894-1895. He was also Proxy Grand Master for Canterbury, New Zealand. There is, to my mind anyway, no doubt that it was Brother Sneddon's knowledge of Freemasonry, (especially the situation between Mother Kilwinning and the Grand Lodge of Scotland which resulted in Mother Kilwinning becoming known as No. 0) that led to the unique Roll of Associated Burns Clubs which placed London as No. 1 and Kilmarnock as No. 0.

Brother David Mackay was a reponing member of Lodge St Marnock, No. 109 in 1867 having affiliated from another, as yet unknown, Lodge. That same year he was appointed Treasurer of the Lodge.

It is not for me to talk on the numerous encounters and friendships which Robert Burns had which were all connected to Freemasonry but many of you will know that without the Craft he might well not have had his First Edition printed, which led to the Second Edition and his acceptance by the literati of Edinburgh. During his Edinburgh stay he met and became acquainted with many of the Lords and Ladies of his day. In most cases the gentlemen were Freemasons. He was even addressed within Lodge Edinburgh St Andrew, No. 48, on 12th January 1787, by the then Grand Master Mason, Brother The Hon. Francis Charteris, as "Caledonia's Bard, Brother Burns."

In 1898 an "Exhibition of Burns' Relics" was held at the premises of Wm. Allan and Sons in Glasgow, where the crowds who thronged the galleries found much to excite their interest. Among the items on display were: —

The Poet's excise inkbottle
The Bible he read at the Brow well
The draughtboard he and Gilbert used at Lochlea
The Masonic Apron and Jewel he had worn as Depute Master at St James Lodge, Tarbolton
Two of his razors, his blunderbuss and several locks of his hair
Jean Armour's rolling pin and a pair of her black silk embroidered stockings
A man called John B. Morgan had lent a bolt and two hasps from the outer door of Clarinda's house
Kilmarnock Burns Club lent a small eggcup made from the old rafters of the Steading at Mossgiel
A Doctor J. S. Hunter had made several items available from his collection, including a "piece of wood which formed part of the joist on which the bed rested on which Burns died".

All of these things are reminders of Burns' humanity, "but scarce one of his spirituality", wrote Duncan McNaught of Kilmaurs, the then editor of the Burns Chronicle.

Brethren, Burns is not a theory or an abstraction to us his countrymen. Both he and his poetry are embalmed in our hearts. His Immortal Memory did not come into being by Royal or Government Decree it simply grew from the love of the people for a single man who has touched the hearts of mankind — the world o'er

Brethren, it has been my pleasure to endeavour to keep alive the memory of Burns while at the same time paying homage to those three fellow Masons whose concerted efforts brought into being The Burns Federation, further strengthening the memory of an exalted Brother.

Returning to my opening statement that:

"The actions of men are the best interpreters of their thoughts"

I ask you to remember them every day as a reminder that your actions are the best example to others of how a Freemason should act or as Robert Burns put it:

"Tae see oorsels as ithers see us."

[The image is of a booklet published some years ago which attempted to document all the remaining artifacts relating to Robert Burns several of which are the property of the GLoS]


J. M. Charteris - History

The Center for Jewish History and its partner organizations - The American Jewish Historical Society, The American Sephardi Federation, The Leo Baeck Institute, Yeshiva University Museum, and The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research - protest the recent trial in Poland of the eminent scholars, Barbara Engelking dan Jan Grabowski. This trial is the most visible outcome of recent measures undertaken by some Polish authorities to suppress scholarly inquiry and threatens to exert a chilling effect on future research and publication in Poland. All who believe that independent, unbiased scholarship is an essential element of a free society should be alarmed at this troubling assault on academic freedom.

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Water-induced thermogenesis

Drinking lots of water is commonly espoused in weight loss regimens and is regarded as healthy however, few systematic studies address this notion. In 14 healthy, normal-weight subjects (seven men and seven women), we assessed the effect of drinking 500 ml of water on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates by using whole-room indirect calorimetry. The effect of water drinking on adipose tissue metabolism was assessed with the microdialysis technique. Drinking 500 ml of water increased metabolic rate by 30%. The increase occurred within 10 min and reached a maximum after 30-40 min. The total thermogenic response was about 100 kJ. About 40% of the thermogenic effect originated from warming the water from 22 to 37 C. In men, lipids mainly fueled the increase in metabolic rate. In contrast, in women carbohydrates were mainly used as the energy source. The increase in energy expenditure with water was diminished with systemic beta-adrenoreceptor blockade. Thus, drinking 2 liters of water per day would augment energy expenditure by approximately 400 kJ. Therefore, the thermogenic effect of water should be considered when estimating energy expenditure, particularly during weight loss programs.


Abstrak

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents from various sources to combat microbial resistance. Therefore, a greater attention has been paid to antimicrobial activity screening and evaluating methods. Several bioassays such as disk-diffusion, well diffusion and broth or agar dilution are well known and commonly used, but others such as flow cytofluorometric and bioluminescent methods are not widely used because they require specified equipment and further evaluation for reproducibility and standardization, even if they can provide rapid results of the antimicrobial agent's effects and a better understanding of their impact on the viability and cell damage inflicted to the tested microorganism. In this review article, an exhaustive list of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and detailed information on their advantages and limitations are reported.


Tonton videonya: The Crown: Scene where Queen burns prime minister for resignation. quitting